How to Balance General Anesthesia

  • G. Torri
Conference paper


In 1950 Rees and Gray [1] suggested a definition of general anesthesia that included narcosis, analgesia, and relaxation. Time has proved that the term analgesia is unsatisfactory. Analgesia means freedom from pain. In order for pain exist, a conscious patient must elaborate impulse from the periphery as pain. If the patient is unconscious, then he cannot be aware of pain, that is to say analgesia is present. Of course during surgery there are important reactions to reflex stimuli that during consciousness would be painful. Moving from these concepts, the same authors [1] proposed the most widely accepted triad of anesthesia, which includes narcosis, relaxation and reflex depression.


Nitrous Oxide Minimal Alveolar Concentration Inhalation Agent Sympathetic Response Surgical Stimulation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Torri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive CareUniversity of San RaffaeleMilanItaly

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