Dermatitis caused by Echinoderms

  • Gianni Angelini
  • Domenico Bonamonte


Echinoderms (echinos = bristle or spiny appearance) (Echinodermata phylum) are animals with a rotate pentamerous symmetry. About 6,000 species are known, 80 of which are toxic or venomous. Their various different shapes have led to a subdivision into five classes. Some are spherical and covered in spines or strong spicules (Echinoidea or sea urchins); some are star-shaped with five points or ray-like arms of variable length (Asteroidea or starfish) (Fig. 4.1); some have a cylindrical body (Holothuroidea or sea cucumbers) (Fig. 4.2); some are flower-like (Crinoidea, sea lilies or feather stars); others have long, branching arms that can twine around solid bodies (Ophiuroidea) (serpent stars: ophis + idis = snake-like) (Table 4.1) (Fig. 4.3) [1].

Table 4.1. Echinodermata classes and most common toxic species

1. Echinoidea (sea urchins)


Paracentrotus lividus

Arbacia lixula

Sphaerechittus granulans

2. Asteroidea (starfish)


Echinaster sepositus

Acanthaster plana

3. Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)




4. Crinoidea (sea lilies)

5. Ophiuroidea (sea snakes)


Intradermal Test Acanthaster Planci Calcareous Plate Diadema Antillarum Eastern Pacific Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Angelini
    • 1
  • Domenico Bonamonte
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly

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