Advertisement

Dermatitis caused by Coelenterates

  • Gianni Angelini
  • Domenico Bonamonte

Abstract

Coelenterata, or “Cnidaria” (from knidi, meaning a nettle), are animals with a simple symmetrical radial structure, a mouth that opens out of a single cavity (coelenteron) and a body membrane consisting of two layers of cells (ectoderm and endoderm) separated by an amorphous jelly-like substance (mesoglea). Owing to the symptoms they induce, Coelenterates are also known as “sea nettles” (Fig. 3.1).

Keywords

Contact Dermatitis Allergic Nature Urticarial Eruption Chrysaora Quinquecirrha Muscular Cramp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fisher AA (1978) Atlas of aquatic dermatology. Grune and Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Altamura BM, Introna F, Rositani L (1981) Lesività da fauna marina mediterranea. Med Leg 3:13Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaplan EH (1982) Coral reefs. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 55Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ghiretti F, Cariello L (1984) Gli animali marini velenosi e le loro tossine. Piccin, PadovaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fisher AA (1986) Aquatic dermatitis. In: Fisher AA (ed) Contact dermatitis, 3rd edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 809Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Angelini G, Vena GA (1991) Principi di dermatologia acquatica. Dermotime 3:15Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burnett JW (1992) Human injuries following jellyfish stings. Mol Med J 46:509Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Halstead BW (1992) Dangerous aquatic animals of the world: a color atlas. The Darwin Press Inc, Princeton, 31Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gowell ET (1993) Sea jellies. Rainbows in the sea. Franklin Watts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Angelini G, Bonamonte D (1997) Dermatoses aquatiques méditerranennes. Nouv Dermatol 16:280Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Angelini G, Vena GA (1997) Dermatologia professionale e ambientale. Vol I. ISED, BresciaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Angelini G (2000) Occupational aquatic dermatology. In: Kanerva L, Eisner P, Wahlberg JE et al (eds) Handbook of occupational dermatology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, 234Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kokelj F (2000) Patologia da meduse. In: Veraldi S, Caputo R (eds) Dermatologia di importazione. Poletto Editore, Milano, 286Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foti C, Bonamonte D, Vena GA et al (2000) Dermatiti da attinie. In: Veraldi S, Caputo R (eds) Dermatologia di importazione. Poletto Editore, Milano, 297Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mariscal RN (1974) Nematocysts. In: Muscatine L, Lenhoff HM (eds) Coelenterate biology. Academic Press, New York, 129Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tardent P, Honegger T, Baenninger R (1980) About the function of stenotheles in Hydra attenuata Pall. In: Tardent P, Tardent R (eds) Developmental and cellular biology of Coelenterates. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tardent P, Holstein T (1982) Morphology and morphodynamics of the stenothele nematocyst of Hydra attenuata Pa. (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria). Cell Tissue Res 224:269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holstein T, Tardent T (1984) An ultralight-speed analysis of exocytosis: nematocyst discharge. Science 223:830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tardent P (1995) The cnidarian cnidocyte, a high-tech cellular weaponry. Bioessays 17:351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Portier P, Richet C (1902) Sur les effects physiologiques du poison des filaments pêcheurs et des tentacules des Coelentérés (hypnotoxine). C R Acad Sci III 134:247Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richet C (1903) Des poisons contenus dans les tentacules des actinies (congestine et thalassine). C R Soc Biol 55:246Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richet C (1903) De la thalassine, toxine cristallisée pruritogène. C R Soc Biol 55:707Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arillo A, Burlando B, Carli AM et al (1994) Mitochondrial alteration caused by cnidarian toxins: a preliminary study. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 70:307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chavez M, Gil S, Fernandez A et al (1998) Purification and partial characterization of a proteinase inhibitor from sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. Toxicon 36:1275Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Diaz J, Morea V, Delfin J et al (1998) Purification and partial characterization of a novel proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. Toxicon 36:1275Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aneiros A, Karlsson E, Beress L et al (1998) Isolation of toxins from the Caribbean sea anemones Bunodosoma granulifera and Phyllactis floscuifera. Toxicon 36:1276Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moore RE, Scheuer PJ (1971) Palytoxin: a new marine toxin from a Coelenterate. Science 172:495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Uemura D, Ueda K, Hirata Y et al (1981) Further studies on palytoxin. II. Structure of palytoxin. Tetrahedron Lett 22:2781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kokelj F (1996) Jellyfish stinging in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Williamson JA, Fenner PJ, Burnett JW (eds) Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. University of New South Wales Press, SidneyGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kokelj F, Burnett JW (1988) Reazioni inusuali indotte dal contatto con la medusa Pelagia noctiluca. Presentazione di tre casi. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 123:501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Burnett JW, Cobbs CS, Kelman SN et al (1983) Studies on the serologic response to jellyfish envenomation. J Am Acad Dermatol 9:229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Togias AG, Burnett JW, Kagei-Sobotka A et al (1985) Anaphylaxis after contact with a jellyfish. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Michaeli D, Benjamini E, Miner RC et al (1966) In vitro studies on the role of collagen in the induction of hypersensitivity to flea bites. J Immunol 96:402Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Russo AJ, Calton GJ, Burnett JW (1983) The relationship of the possible allergic response to jellyfish envenomation and serum antibody titers. Toxicon 21:475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mansson T, Randle HW, Mandojana RM et al (1985) Recurrent cutaneous jellyfish eruption without envenomation. Acta Derm Venereol 65:72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reed KM, Bronstein BR, Baden HP (1984) Delayed and persistent cutaneous reactions to Coelenterates. J Am Acad Dermatol 10:462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burnett JW, Hepper KP, Aurelian L et al (1987) Recurrent eruptions following unusual solitary Coelenterate envenomations. J Am Acad Dermatol 17:86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Russel FS (1970) The medusae of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kokelj F, Del Negro P, Tubaro A (1989) Dermotossicità da Chrysaora hysoscella. Presentazione di un caso. G Ital Derm Venereol 124:297Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Del Negro P, Kokelj F, Avian M et al (1991) Toxic property of the jellyfish Chrysaora hysoscella: preliminary report. Rev Intern Océanograph Med 101:168Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kokelj F, Del Negro P, Montanari G (1992) Jellyfish dermatitis due to Carybdaea marsupialis. Contact Dermatitis 27:195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kokelj P, Avian M, Spanier E et al (1995) Dermatotoxicity of 2 nematocyst preparations of the jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica. Contact Dermatitis 32:244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Long-Rowe KO, Burnett JW (1994) Characteristics of hyaluronidase and hemolytic activity in fishing tentacle nematocyst venom of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Toxicon 32:165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Long-Rowe KO, Burnett JW (1994) Sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) lethal factor: purification by recycling on m-aminophenyl boronic acid acrylic beads. Toxicon 32:467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Houck HE, Lipsky MM, Marzella L et al (1996) Toxicity of sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) fishing tentacle nematocyst venom in cultured rot hepatocytes. Toxicon 34:771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Burnett JW, Calton GJ, Burnett HW (1986) Jellyfish envenomation syndromes. J Am Acad Dermatol 14:100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosco MD (1977) Cutaneous manifestations of marine animal injuries including diagnosis and treatment. Cutis 19:507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burnett JW, Calton GJ, Morgan RJ (1987) Venomous Coelenterates. Cutis 39:191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fisher AA (1987) Toxic and allergic cutaneous reactions to jellyfish with special reference to delayed reactions. Cutis 40:303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Burnett JW, Calton GJ (1977) The chemistry and toxicology of some venomous pelagic Coelenterates. Toxicon 15:177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glasser DB, Noell MJ, Burnett JW et al (1992) Ocular jellyfish stings. Ophthalmology 99:1414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peters H (1967) Hydrodein-dermatitis. Hautarzt 18:396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Matusow RJ (1980) Oral inflammatory responses to a sting from a Portuguese man-ofwar. J Am Dent Assoc 100:73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kromp P (1961) Synopsis of the medusae of the world. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 40:1Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kokelj F, Mianzan H, Avian M et al (1993) Dermatitis due to Olindias sambaquiensis: a case report. Cutis 51:339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kokelj F, Stinco G, Avian M et al (1995) Cell-mediated sensitization to jellyfish antigens confirmed by positive patch test to Olindias sambaquiensis preparations. J Am Acad Dermatol 33:307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yaffee HS (1968) A delayed cutaneous reaction following contact with jellyfish. Dermatol Int April-June issue, p 75Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Williamson JA, Le Ray LE, Wohlfart M et al (1984) The acute management of serious box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) stings. Med J Aust 141:851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Querull P, Bernard P, Dantzer E (1996) Severe cutaneous envenomation by the Mediterranean jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca. Vet Hemsan Toxicol 38:460Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gunn MA (1947) Localized fat atrophy after jellyfish sting. Br Med J 2:687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Drury JK, Noonan JH, Pollock JH et al (1980) Jellyfish sting with serious hand complications. Injury 12:66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Williamson JA, Burnett JW, Fenner PJ et al (1988) Acute regional vascular insufficiency after jellyfish envenomation. Med J Aust 149:697Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Burnett JW, Williamson JA, Fenner PJ (1994) Mononeuritis multiplex after Coelenterate sting. Med J Aust 161:320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Filling-Katz MR (1984) Mononeuritis multiplex following jellyfish stings. Ann Neurol 15:213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Moats WE (1992) Fire coral envenomation. J Wilderness Med 3:284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Peel N, Kandler R (1990) Localized neuropathy following jellyfish sting. Postgrad Med J 66:953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Flecker H (1952) Irukandji sting to north Queensland bathers without production of weals but with severe general symptoms. Med J Aust 2:89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Southcott RV (1967) Revision of some Carybdeidae (Schyphozoa: cubomedusae) including a description of the jellyfish responsible for the “Irukandji syndrome”. Aust J Zool 15:651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Little M, Mulcahy RF (1998) Bites and sting: a year’s experience of Irukandji envenomation in far north Queensland. Med J Aust 169:638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wiltshire CJ, Sutherland SK, Winkel KD et al (1998) Comparative studies on venom extracts from three jellyfishes: the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi), the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri southcott) and the blubber Catosylus mosaicus). Toxicon 36:1239Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Burnett JW, Calton GJ, Fenner PJ et al (1988) Serological diagnosis to jellyfish envenomations. Comp Biochem Physiol 91C:79Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wachsman M, Aurelian L, Burnett JW (1991) Human immunosuppression induced by sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) venom. Toxicon 29:386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Burnett JW, Bloom DA, Imafuku S et al (1996) Coelenterate research 1991-1995: clinical, chemical and immunological aspects. Toxicon 34:1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ferlan L, Lebez D (1974) Equinatoxin, a lethal protein from Actinia equina. I. Purification and characterization. Toxicon 12:57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maretec Z, Russel FE (1963) Stings by the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata in the Adriatic sea. J Trop Med Hyg 32:891Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Vena GA, Fiordalisi F, Angelini G (1989) Dermatite da contatto e reazione anafilattoide da Anemonia sulcata. In: Ayala F, Balato N (eds) Dermatologia in Posters. Cilag S.p.A., NapoliGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Molfino F, Zannini D (1964) L’uomo e il mondo sommerso. Medicina subacquea. Minerva Med, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sams WM (1949) Seabather’s eruption. Arch Dermatol 60:227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pike AW (1989) Sea lice: major pathogens of farmed Atlantic salmon. Parasitol Today 5:291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hutton RF (1960) Marine dermatosis. Arch Dermatol 82:951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tomchik RS, Russel MT, Szmant AM et al (1993) Clinical perspectives on seabather’s eruption, also known as sea lice. JAMA 269:1669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Straus JS (1956) Seabather’s eruption. Arch Dermatol 74:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Moschella H (1951) Further clinical observations on seabather’s eruption. Arch Dermatol 64:55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Frankel EH (1992) Seabather’s eruption develops following Mexican vacation. Clin Cases Dermatol 4:6Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Freudenthal AR (1991) Seabather’s eruption: range extended northward and a causative organism identified. Rev Int Oceanogr Med 101:137Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wong DE, Meinking TL, Rosen LB et al (1994) Seabather’s eruption. Clinical, histologic, and immunologic features. J Am Acad Dermatol 30:399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Angelini G, Vena GA (2001) Dermatosi acquageniche. In: Giannetti A (ed) Trattato di dermatologia. Vol II. Piccin, Padova, cap. 45Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Russell MT, Tomchik RS (1993) Seabather’s eruption, or “sea lice”: new findings and clinical implications. J Emerg Nurs 93:197Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jefferies NJ, Rushby N (1997) Caribbean itch: eight cases and one who didn’t. J Royal Army Med Corps 143:163Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ducombs G, Lamy M (1985) Accidents dus à Physalia physalis L. “Le syndrome physalien”. Bull Act Thérap 30:3011Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ioannides G, Davis JH (1965) Portuguese man-of-war stinging. Arch Dermatol 91:448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Marr JJ (1967) Portuguese man-of-war. Envenomization. A personal experience. JAMA 199:337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Russel FE (1966) Physalia stings: a report of two cases. Toxicon 4:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Baslow MH (1969) Marine pharmacology. Williams and Wilkins Co, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Burnett JW, Gable WD (1989) A fatal jellyfish envenomation by the Portuguese man-of-war. Toxicon 27:823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stein MR, Marraccini JV, Rothschild NE et al (1989) Fatal Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) envenomation. Ann Emerg Med 18:312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bonamonte D, Cassano N, Angelini G et al (2000) Dermatiti da fisalie e da idroidi. In: Veraldi S, Caputo R (eds). Dermatologia di importazione. Poletto Editore, Milano, 309Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Burnett JW, Fenner PJ, Kokelj F et al (1994) Serious Physalia (Portuguese man-of-war) stings: implications for scuba divers. J Wilderness Med 5:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Banister K, Campbell A (1993) The encyclopedia of aquatic life. Facts on File, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vena GA et al (2000) Dermatiti da coralli. In: Veraldi S, Caputo R (eds). Dermatologia di importazione. Poletto Editore, Milano, 311Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tong D (1995) Coral dermatitis in the aquarium industry. Contact Dermatitis 33:207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Addy JH (1991) Red sea coral contact dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 30:271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Camarasa JG, Nogués Antich E, Serra-Baldrich E (1993) Red sea coral contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 29:285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Piérard GE, Letot B, Piérard-Franchimont C (1990) Histologic study of delayed reactions to Coelenterates. J Am Acad Dermatol 22:599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Fenner PJ, Williamson JA, Burnett JW (1998) Treatment and prevention of jellyfish envenomation. Toxicon 36:1242Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hartman KR, Calton GJ, Burnett JW (1980) The use of the radio-allergosorbent test for the study of Coelenterate toxin-specific immunoglobulin E. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 61:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Burnett JW, Calton GJ (1981) Use of IgE antibody determinations in cutaneous Coelenterate envenomations. Cutis 27:50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Currie B, Stephen H, Ho S (1993) Box-jellyfish, Coca-Cola and old wine. Med J Aust 158:868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Afa G, Olivetti G (1986) Dermatologia acquatica mediterranea. La Lettera del Dermatologo 5:4Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Angelini
    • 1
  • Domenico Bonamonte
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly

Personalised recommendations