The aquatic environment and its biotoxins

  • Gianni Angelini
  • Domenico Bonamonte


The aquatic world, together with its animal kingdom, is renowned for its enchanting beauty. In particular, the vast tropical coral reefs offer a shimmering, glittering underwater panorama featuring an infinite variety of hues, sometimes clashing but always ultimately harmonising. In some cases, however, these beautiful shapes, elegant movements and profusion of colours seem to go hand in hand with disease and death. This is one of the great paradoxes of the aquatic world.


Aquatic Animal Cone Shell Venomous Gland Shark Giant Venomous Animal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Williamson JA, Fenner PJ, Burnett JW et al (1996) Venomous and poisonous marine animals. A medical and biologic handbook. University of New South Wales Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Halstead BW (1992) Dangerous aquatic animals of the world: a color atlas. The Darwin Press Inc, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghiretti F, Cariello L (1984) Gli animali marini velenosi e le loro tossine. Piccin, Padova, 7Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Banner AM (1967) Marine toxins from the Pacific. I. Advances in the investigations of fish toxins. In: Russel FE, Saunders PS (eds) Animal toxins. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 157Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Der Marderosian A (1968) Current status of drug compounds from marine sources. In: Freudenthal HD (ed) Drugs from the sea. Marine Technological Society, Washington, 19Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baslow MH (1969) Marine pharmacology. The Williams and Wilkins Co, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bucherl W, Buckley EE (1971) Venomous animals and their venoms. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Humm HJ, Lane CE (1974) Bioactive compounds from the sea. M Dekker Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Russell FE, Brodie AF (1974) Toxicology: venomous and poisonous marine animals. In: Mariscal RC (ed) Experimental marine biology. Academic Press, New York, 269Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruggieri GD (1976) Drugs from the sea. Science 194: 491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scheuer PJ (1978) Marine natural products. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hashimoto Y (1979) Marine toxins and other bioactive marine metabolites. Japan Scientific Society Press, TokioGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eaker D, Wadström T (1980) Natural toxins. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Habermehl GG (1981) Venomous animals and their toxins. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Angelini
    • 1
  • Domenico Bonamonte
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly

Personalised recommendations