Aquatic skin diseases from physical and chemical causes

  • Gianni Angelini
  • Domenico Bonamonte


Apart from the diseases due to biotic noxae described up to now, there are various other dermatological conditions connected in some way with salt or freshwater contact or with aquatic activities (Table 12.1) [1, 2]. No analysis will here be made of afflictions favoured, induced or aggravated by exposure to the sun, which is in a sense obligatory in subjects involved in aquatic activities for long or short periods, or of those which may benefit from such exposure, as they are outside the scope of this work.

Table 12.1. Some skin diseases of aquatic origin



Aquagenic urticaria

Aquagenic pruritus

Cold urticaria

Contact dermatitis

Swimming costume

Diving equipment


Swimming pool



Chlorine irritation

Chapping in atopic subjects

Greenish hair tinge

Hair bleaching

Chemical conjunctivitis

Otitis externa

Jacuzzi/hot tubs

Folliculitis induced by Pseudomonas


Tinea versicolor


Aquagenic pruritus


Immersion syndrome

Abrasive effect

Surfer’ s nodules

Otitis externa

Sub-aqua activities

Otitis externa


Staphylococcal infections


Linear abrasions from wetsuit folds

Pruritus and erythema from


“Napkin rash” type dermatitis


Contact Dermatitis Allergy Clin Immunol Allergic Contact Dermatitis Chronic Urticaria External Otitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Angelini
    • 1
  • Domenico Bonamonte
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit of DermatologyUniversity of BariItaly

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