Cryptosporidiosis, Microsporidiosis, Isosporiasis, Cyclosporiasis, Leishmaniasis, Pneumocystosis and Toxoplasmosis

From Animal to Man: Reservoirs and Ways of Transmission
  • Ynes R. Ortega


There is a series of opportunistic parasites that can lead to morbidity and in most instances to death when infecting immunocompromised patients. These pathogens can be transmitted via the oral-fecal route or by ingestion of contaminated water, soil, or foods. Coccidians such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora can be acquired by ingestion of infectious oocysts, which are excreted into the environment. Toxoplasma can be acquired by ingestion of infectious oocysts but also by eating contaminated meats containing cystic forms of the parasite. Leishmania belongs to the Try- panosomatidae family and is usually transmitted by insect bites. Pneumocystis, formerly classified with the sporozoa, has been reclassified with the fungi and is considered an important cause of pulmonary infections particularly in immunosuppressed individuals.


Visceral Leishmaniasis Alveolar Hydatid Disease Cryptosporidium Parvum Acalculous Cholecystitis Foodborne Outbreak 
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  • Ynes R. Ortega

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