Advertisement

Epidemiology and Comprehensive Management of HIV-Related Diarrhea in Africa

  • Elly T. Katabira

Abstract

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first identified in Africa as slim disease, partly because of the associated chronic diarrhea [1, 2]. This is still true in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where chronic diarrhea last- ing more than 1 month remains an important clini- cal presentation despite the advent of effective anti- retroviral drugs. Chronic diarrhea is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates, particu- larly in areas where both financial and human resources are limited in providing adequate care. In this case, effective management calls for a strategic approach involving both conventional and uncon- ventional principles.

Keywords

Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Chronic Diarrhea Comprehensive Management Lactose Intolerance Human Immune Deficiency Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Serwadda D, Mugerwa R, Sewankambo N, et al(1985) Slim disease; a new disease in Uganda and its associ-ation with HTLV III Infection. Lancet 2:849–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mhiri C, Belec L, Di Costanzo B, Georges A, Gherardi R (1992) The slim disease in African patients with AIDS. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:303–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Colebunders R, Francis H, Mann JM, et al(1987) Per-sistent diarrhea, strongly associated with HIV infec-tion in Kinshasa, Zaire. Am J Gastr Entorol 82:859–864Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    O’Keefe EA, Wood R (1996) AIDS in Africa. Scand J Gastroenterol 220 [Suppl]:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelly P, Baboo KS, Wolff M, Ngwenya B, Luo N, Far-thing MJ (1996) The prevalence and etiology of per-sistent diarrhea in adults in urban Zambia. Acta Trop 61:183–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thea DM, Glass R, Grohmann GS, et al(1993) Preva-lence of enteric viruses among hospital patients with AIDS in Kinshasa, Zaire. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87:263–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Colebunders RL, Latif AS (1991) Natural history and clinical presentation of HIV-i infection in adults. AIDS 5[Suppl 1]:S103–S112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mugerwa RD, Marum LH, Serwadda D (1996) Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS in Uganda. E African Med J 73:20–25Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sewankambo NK, Mugerwa RD, Goodgame R, et al (1987) Enteropathie AIDS in Uganda. An endoscopic, histological and microbiological study. AIDS 1:9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colebunders R, Lusakumunu K, Nelson AM, et al (1988) Persistent diarrhea in Zairian AIDS patients: an endoscopic and histological study. Gut 29:1687–1691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Conlon CP, Pinching AJ, Perera CU, Moody A, Luo NP, Lucas SB (1990) HIV-related enteropathy in Lusaka, Zambia: a clinical, microbiological and histo-logical study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42:83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lucas SB, Papadaki L, Conlon C, Sewankambo N, Goodgame R, Serwadda D (1989) Diagnosis of intes-tinal microsporidiosis in patients with AIDS. J Clin Pathol 42:885–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Katabira E, Goodgame R (1989) AIDS Care: Diagnos-tic and treatment strategies for health workers. Entebbe, Uganda. AIDS Control Programme, Min-istry of HealthGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Katabira ET, Wabitsch RK (1991) Management issues for patients with HIV infection in Africa. AIDS 5 [Suppl]:S149–S155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    USPHS/IDSA Prevention of Opportunistic Infections Working Group (1997) 1997 USPHS/IDSA guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections in per-sons infected with human immune deficiency virus: Disease-specific recommendations. Clin Infect Dis 25 [Suppl3]:S313Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anglaret X, Chene G, Attia A, et al(1999) Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethaxa-zole in HIV-i infected adults in Abdjan, Cote d’lvoire: a randomized trial. Lancet 353:1463–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bini EJ, Cohen J (1998) Effect of protease inhibitors on the outcome of chronic HIV-related diarrhea. Gas-troenterology H4:A933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    WHO (2002) Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elly T. Katabira

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations