Gut Infections: Etiopathogenetic and Clinical Remarks

  • Daniele Dionisio


In approximately 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected diarrheic patients, no opportunistic infections can be detected [1]. These cases are often labeled as HIV enteropathy or HIV colitis and may be associated with a series of functional and histopathological gut alterations that include villous atrophy, abnormal lipid accumulation, enterocyte cytoplasmic vacuolation, crypt epithelial cell apopto- sis, lamina propria inflammation, impaired gastric acid, and intrinsic factor secretion, malabsorption, and dysfunctions in intestianl immunoglobulin production [1, 2]. Moreover, in 30%–70% of all patients, HIV was found within lymphocytes and macrophages in intestinal lymphoid tissue [1, 3–5]. In addition, HIV was isolated from enterocytes and colonic cells, as well as from enterochromaffin cells in small-bowel mucosa and in colonic ulcers or in areas of colonic infammation [3, 6].


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Visceral Leishmaniasis Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndrome 
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  • Daniele Dionisio

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