Which Congestive Heart Failure Patient Needs to Be Studied in Haemodynamic Laboratory and When?

  • C. Vassanelli
  • G. Menegatti
Conference paper


Heart failure has emerged as a major challenge of increasing prevalence as age-adjusted rates of myocardial infarction and stroke decline [1]. In Italy, it has been estimated that congestive heart failure accounts for 800 000 days of hospitalization per year in cardiological units [2]. Invasive investigation is generally not required to establish the presence of chronic heart failure, but it may be important in elucidating the cause or to obtain prognostic information. Three diagnostic tools may be helpful in different situations: coronary angiography, hemodynamic monitoring, and endomyocardial biopsy. None of these is indicated as a routine procedure.


Heart Failure Coronary Angiography Chronic Heart Failure Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Endomyocardial Biopsy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Vassanelli
    • 1
  • G. Menegatti
    • 2
  1. 1.Divisione Clinicizzata di CardiologiaUniversità del Piemonte OrientaleNovara
  2. 2.PoliclinicoServizio di CardiologiaVeronaItaly

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