Ventricular Pacing in Congestive Heart Failure: The Role of the Internist

  • M. Pagani
  • F. Lo Presti
Conference paper


Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complex clinical syndrome caused by multiple structural and functional alterations which together induce left ventricular dysfunction. Throughout the world CHF affects more than 22 million individuals and 4%-6% of the population over 65 years of age. With 2 million new cases every year, it has become a social and health program problem of immense proportions. At 5 years after diagnosis the survival rate is only 50%. The two main causes of death are pump dysfunction and arrhythmias.


Congestive Heart Failure Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Left Bundle Branch Block Ventricular Pace Congestive Heart Failure Patient 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Pagani
    • 1
  • F. Lo Presti
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro Terapia NeurovegetativaUniversity of MilanItaly
  2. 2.Departments of Medicine and CardiologyL. Sacco HospitalMilanItaly

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