Medical Emergency Response in Toxicological Mass Casualty

  • P. L. Ingrassia
  • L. Ragazzoni
  • F. Della Corte
Conference paper


Emergencies and disasters can occur anywhere in the world, affecting human health and lives and the infrastructure built to support them. Chemical releases arising from technological incidents, natural disasters, and conflict and terrorism are common [1]. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has estimated that between 1998 and 2007, there were nearly 3,200 technological disasters with approximately 100,000 people killed and nearly 2 million people affected. Unfortunately, the threat of major events involving chemicals is predicted to increase worldwide for three main reasons. First, the chemical industry is rapidly growing, and the number of chemicals available in the market is increasing [2]. Second, chemical incidents may have an impact beyond their original location, in some cases crossing national borders. Third, there is concern regarding the deliberate use of chemicals for terrorist purposes [3].


Emergency Medical Service Personal Protective Equipment Mass Casualty Mass Casualty Incident Chemical Release 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Ingrassia
  • L. Ragazzoni
  • F. Della Corte

There are no affiliations available

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