Clinical Applications of 3D Imaging in Thoracic Vascular Pathology: Pulmonary Vascular Applications

  • Mathias Prokop


The chest vasculature profits particularly from 3D imaging. In principle, with regard to 3D image quality, it is irrelevant whether the data set is acquired with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA), but near isotropic spatial resolution is an important prerequisite for optimal results. The challenges, however, encountered by MRA and CTA are different: MRA suffers mainly from limited coverage and inhomogeneous signal intensity within the vessels, whereas CTA has problems with image noise and superimposing bone. Both are influenced by the fact that, frequently, not only the systemic or pulmonary vascular system but multiple portions of both vascular systems are enhanced simultaneously and may have to be separated by processing. Separate display of systemic veins, pulmonary veins, pulmonary arteries, or systemic arteries is frequently challenging and requires major postprocessing.


Compute Tomography Angiography Pulmonary Vein Magnetic Resonance Angiography Maximum Intensity Projection Bronchial Artery 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathias Prokop
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyRadboud University NijmegenThe Netherlands

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