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Demographic and Survival Studies of Cryoglobulinemic Patients

  • Giuseppe Monti
  • Francesco Saccardo
  • Laura Castelnovo
Chapter

Abstract

Cryoglobulinemic syndrome (CS) is a relatively rare disorder. Type I cryoglobulins are associated with lymphoproliferative disorders while types II and III are associated with connective tissue diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders, and chronic infections, especially with hepatitis C virus. Indeed, CS is the most common extra hepatic manifestation of HCV and its spread is closely related to the worldwide pattern of infection with the virus. Female gender seems to be correlated with a higher prevalence of CS. The mean age at the time of first diagnosis is typically 65 years. CS most commonly takes the form of a mild, slow-progressive disorder, with a relatively good prognosis and good survival; however, in a small percentage of patients, CS has a moderate-severe clinical course. Rarely, the clinical course evolves dramatically, with multi-system involvement and life-threatening complications. The cumulative survival of patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia 10 years after diagnosis is 56–82%. The main cause of death is liver pathology, followed by sepsis, nephropathy and cardiovascular events, with an average survival of about 8 years.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Visceral Leishmaniasis Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Mixed Cryoglobulinemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Monti
    • 1
  • Francesco Saccardo
    • 1
  • Laura Castelnovo
    • 1
  1. 1.Internal Medicine UnitOspedale di SaronnoSaronnoItaly

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