Demographic and Survival Studies of Cryoglobulinemic Patients

  • Giuseppe Monti
  • Francesco Saccardo
  • Laura Castelnovo


Cryoglobulinemic syndrome (CS) is a relatively rare disorder. Type I cryoglobulins are associated with lymphoproliferative disorders while types II and III are associated with connective tissue diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders, and chronic infections, especially with hepatitis C virus. Indeed, CS is the most common extra hepatic manifestation of HCV and its spread is closely related to the worldwide pattern of infection with the virus. Female gender seems to be correlated with a higher prevalence of CS. The mean age at the time of first diagnosis is typically 65 years. CS most commonly takes the form of a mild, slow-progressive disorder, with a relatively good prognosis and good survival; however, in a small percentage of patients, CS has a moderate-severe clinical course. Rarely, the clinical course evolves dramatically, with multi-system involvement and life-threatening complications. The cumulative survival of patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia 10 years after diagnosis is 56–82%. The main cause of death is liver pathology, followed by sepsis, nephropathy and cardiovascular events, with an average survival of about 8 years.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Visceral Leishmaniasis Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Mixed Cryoglobulinemia 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Monti
    • 1
  • Francesco Saccardo
    • 1
  • Laura Castelnovo
    • 1
  1. 1.Internal Medicine UnitOspedale di SaronnoSaronnoItaly

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