Experimental Models of Mixed Cryoglobulinemia

  • Charles E. Alpers
  • Tomasz A. Wietecha
  • Kelly L. Hudkins


Only a few animal models of cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis have been characterized. Most murine models of mixed cryoglobulinemia occur in the context of autoimmune dysregulation and most resemble diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. The thymic stromal lymphopoietin transgenic mouse model of type III mixed cryoglobulinemia currently best replicates the features of cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) as it occurs in humans with mixed cryoglobulinemia, particularly humans infected with hepatitis C virus. This model has been used to test the importance of the inhibitory Fc receptor FcRllb in limiting the severity of disease expression, in demonstrating the deleterious effect of infiltrating monocyte/macrophage populations that is a characteristic feature of this type of glomerulonephritis, and in demonstrating the potential reversibility of MPGN with appropriate therapeutic interventions.


Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Glomerular Injury Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Capillary Basement Membrane Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin 



The work reported here was supported by grants from the US National Institutes of Health (DK68802) and an unrestricted grant from the Genzyme Renal Innovations Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles E. Alpers
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tomasz A. Wietecha
    • 1
  • Kelly L. Hudkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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