Advertisement

Cardiology

  • F. Pigozzi
  • M. Rizzo
  • P. Borrione

Abstract

An athlete’s cardiologic assessment is the basis for his or her safe participation in vigorous training and competition. However, athletes represent an interesting study sample for the cardiologist, both in terms of diagnosis and management because of the peculiarity of the clinical and instrumental findings that frequently characterize their evaluation. Well-trained athletes very often present with significant morphological, functional, and electrophysiological alterations that comprise a physiological clinical picture known as the “athlete’s heart”. Cardiologists who evaluate athletes should have a deep knowledge of this clinical picture in order to correctly interpret the findings of these patients. Moreover, they must bear in mind that the consequences of an erroneous diagnosis are potentially devastating, leading to the death of the athlete or to the end of his or her sports career. In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of the main issues contributing to a deeper knowledge of the athlete’s heart and suggest specific further readings.

Keywords

Sudden Cardiac Death Young Athlete Left Ventricular Cavity Trained Athlete Automatic External Defibrillator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading Athlete’s Heart

Athlete’s Heart

  1. Maron BJ, Pelliccia A (2006) The heart of trained athletes. Cardiac remodelling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation 114:1633–1644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Spataro A et al (1991) The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. N Engl J Med 324:295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pelliccia A, Culasso F, Di Paolo F, Maron BJ (1999) Physiologic left ventricular cavity dilatation in élite athletes. Ann Inter Med 130:23–31Google Scholar
  4. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Culasso F et al (1996) Athlete’s heart in women: echocardiographic characterization of highly trained elite female athletes. JAMA 276:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Differential Diagnosis of Athlete’s Heart

  1. Spataro A, Pisicchio C, Rizzo M et al (2005) Athlete’s heart, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, the “grey zone”. J Sports Cardiol 2:102–108Google Scholar

Cardiologic Evaluation

  1. Fletcher GF (1999) The athlete’s electrocardiogram. In: Williams RA (ed) The athlete and heart disease: diagnosis, evaluation & management Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Culasso F et al (2000) Clinical significance of abnormal electrocardiographic patterns in trained athletes. Circulation 102:278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pelliccia A, Di Paolo F, Quattrini FM et al (2008) Outcomes in athletes with marked ECG repolarization abnormalities. N Engl J Med 358:152–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Arrhythmias in Athletes

  1. Zeppilli Paolo (2007) Cardiologia dello Sport, 4th edn. CESI, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  2. Fletcher GF (1999) The athlete’s electrocardiogram. In: Williams RA (ed) The athlete and heart disease: diagnosis, evaluation & management. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Maron BJ, Pelliccia A (2006) The heart of trained athletes. Cardiac remodelling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation 114:1633–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes

  1. Pigozzi F and Rizzo M (2008) Sudden death in competitive athletes. Clin Sports Med 27:153–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Maron BJ (2003) Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J Med 349:1064–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pigozzi F and Rizzo M (2010) Cardiac emergencies on athletic fields. In: McDonagh D, FIMS sports medicine event manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, in pressGoogle Scholar

Pre-participation Screening

  1. Pigozzi F, Rizzo M, Maffulli N (2009) Pre-participation screening of young athletes to prevent sudden cardiac death. Intl Sport Med J 10:101–115Google Scholar
  2. Corrado D, Basso C, Pavei A et al (2006) Trends in sudden cardiovascular death in young competitive athletes after implementation of a preparticipation screening. JAMA 296:1593–1601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Bjornstad HH et al (2005) Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol. Consensus Statement of the Study group of Sport Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of myocardial and pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 26:516–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Pigozzi
  • M. Rizzo
  • P. Borrione

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations