Multiple-ligament Injuries of the Knee
A multiple-ligament injured knee usually occurs after a significant force is applied to the knee resulting in its dislocation. These injuries typically involve a high-energy mechanism resulting in simultaneous injury to the cruciate, collateral ligaments, menisci, articular cartilage and neurovascular structures, which makes the evaluation and management of traumatic knee dislocations complicated. The incidence of knee dislocation is difficult to quantify. Traumatic knee dislocations are uncommon and only account for < 0.02% of all orthopedic injuries [1–3]. However, the true incidence is likely underestimated because an unknown number of knee dislocations spontaneously reduce and are thus not diagnosed. There is a potential for disastrous consequences if these injuries are mismanaged, particularly in knee dislocations that involve injury to the neurovascular structures, which is reported to occur in 15–50% of all knee dislocations [4–7]. Therefore, the multiple-ligament injured knee requires a thorough evaluation and basic knowledge of management concepts.
KeywordsAnterior Cruciate Ligament Posterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Tunnel Medial Collateral Ligament Lateral Collateral Ligament
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