Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Knee

  • K. R. Reinhardt
  • A. S. Ranawat


The posterolateral and posteromedial corners of the knee have important roles in normal knee function and kinematics. Injuries to the medial and lateral sides of the knee should be considered in patients presenting with suggestive symptoms. Proper examination maneuvers coupled with diagnostic imaging has led to more of these injuries being correctly diagnosed. Treatment strategies for these injuries are most often guided by the severity or grade of injury, with lower grade injuries more likely to be successfully treated by non-operative methods, and surgical repair or reconstruction reserved for higher grade injuries. Recent surgical trends have focused on anatomic restoration of the various structures on both sides of the knee, but there is still no general consensus regarding optimal surgical techniques. In the future, randomized controlled trials will be helpful in addressing current controversies related to the treatment of injuries to the lateral collateral ligament/posterolateral corner and medial collateral ligament/posteromedial corner.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Interference Screw Knee Dislocation Valgus Stress Capsular Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Seebacher JR, Inglis AE, Marshall JL et al (1982) The structure of the posterolateral aspect of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 64:536–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ranawat A, Baker CL 3rd, Henry S et al (2008) Posterolateral corner injury of the knee: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 16:506–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    LaPrade RF, Terry GC (1997) Injuries to the posterolateral aspect of the knee. Association of anatomic injury patterns with clinical instability. Am J Sports Med 25:433–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warren LF, Marshall JL (1979) The supporting structures and layers on the medial side of the knee: an anatomical analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wymenga AB, Kats JJ, Kooloos J et al (2006) Surgical anatomy of the medial collateral ligament and the posteromedial capsule of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 14:229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeLee JC, Riley MB, Rockwood CA Jr (1983) Acute posterolateral rotatory instability of the knee. Am J Sports Med 11:199–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fetto JF, Marshall JL (1978) Medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee: a rationale for treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 132:206–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hughston JC, Andrews JR, Cross MJ et al (1976) Classification of knee ligament instabilities. Part I. The medial compartment and cruciate ligaments. J Bone Joint Surg Am 58:159–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sanders TG, Miller MD (2005) A systematic approach to magnetic resonance imaging interpretation of sports medicine injuries of the knee. Am J Sports Med 33:131–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Veltri DM, Warren RF (1994) Operative treatment of posterolateral instability of the knee. Clin Sports Med 13:615–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD, Albright JC (2006) An analysis of the causes of failure in 57 consecutive posterolateral operative procedures. Am J Sports Med 34:1419–1430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Larson R, Tingstad E (2003) Lateral and posterior instabilities of the knee in the adult. In: DeLee JC, Drez D (eds) Orthopaedic sports medicine: principles and practice. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1968–1993Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bicos J, Arciero RA (2006) Novel approach for reconstruction of the posterolateral corner using a free tendon graft technique. Sports Med Arthrosc 14:28–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    LaPrade RF, Johansen S, Wentorf FA et al (2004) An analysis of an anatomical posterolateral knee reconstruction: an in vitro biomechanical study and development of a surgical technique. Am J Sports Med 32:1405–1414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD (2007) Posterolateral knee reconstruction with an anatomical bone-patellar tendon-bone reconstruction of the fibular collateral ligament. Am J Sports Med 35:259–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lundberg M, Messner K (1996) Long-term prognosis of isolated partial medial collateral ligament ruptures. A ten-year clinical and radiographic evaluation of a prospectively observed group of patients. Am J Sports Med 24:160–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sims WF, Jacobson KE (2004) The posteromedial corner of the knee: medial-sided injury patterns revisited. Am J Sports Med 32:337–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Battaglia MJ 2nd, Lenhoff MW, Ehteshami JR et al (2009) Medial collateral ligament injuries and subsequent load on the anterior cruciate ligament: a biomechanical evaluation in a cadaveric model. Am J Sports Med 37:305–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fenton RL (1957) Surgical repair of a torn tibial collateral ligament of the knee by means of the semitendinosus tendon (Bosworth procedure); report of twenty-eight cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 39A:304–308Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoshiya S, Kuroda R, Mizuno K et al (2005) Medial collateral ligament reconstruction using autogenous hamstring tendons: technique and results in initial cases. Am J Sports Med 33:1380–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lind M, Jakobsen BW, Lund B et al (2009) Anatomical reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner of the knee in patients with chronic medial collateral ligament instability. Am J Sports Med 37:1116–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Reinhardt
  • A. S. Ranawat

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations