Clinical Examination of the Knee

  • R. Rossi
  • M. Bruzzone
  • F. Dettoni
  • F. Margheritini


A careful and precise examination of the knee is mandatory for correct diagnosis, and fundamental for decision-making. It must be preceded by a complete patient history in order to address the clinical examination, even if symptoms are often non-specific. In addition, the clinical examination must be bilateral and well standardized. Every surgeon must use those tests he or she is most confident with, variably combined to improve sensitivity. Imaging studies are used only to confirm the diagnosis formulated on the basis of history and clinical examination. The patellofemoral joint is frequently injured but meniscal lesions, chondral lesions, and instability are common as well. Although these injuries often coexist, they are discussed separately here in order to present a comprehensive and reproducible method of clinical assessment.


External Rotation Tibial Plateau Joint Line Lateral Meniscus Pivot Shift 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rossi
  • M. Bruzzone
  • F. Dettoni
  • F. Margheritini

There are no affiliations available

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