The Pathophysiology of Tendon Injury

  • N. Maffulli
  • U. G. Longo
  • F. Spiezia
  • V. Denaro


The etiology of tendinopathy and tendon rupture is unclear. Tendon pathology is likely caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors alone or in combination, but the evidence for most of these factors is limited or absent. The essence of tendinopathy is a failed healing response. In the last few decades, biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care, with many new tissue-engineered materials recently introduced. Indeed, the principles of engineering and biology have been applied to the development of artificial polymers, biodegradable films, and biomaterials derived from animal or human sources. Preliminary studies support the use of biomaterials as an alternative to tendon augmentation, with enormous therapeutic potential. In animal models, growth factors are effective in increasing the cellularity and overall tissue volume of the repair site. Several interesting techniques are being developed to manage tendon injuries. Whilst these emerging technologies may substantially improve clinical treatment options, their full impact needs to be critically evaluated in an unbiased, scientific fashion.


Achilles Tendon Tendon Injury Tendon Healing Achilles Tendinopathy Type Versus Collagen 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Maffulli
  • U. G. Longo
  • F. Spiezia
  • V. Denaro

There are no affiliations available

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