Acromioclavicular Injuries of the Shoulder

  • E. Calvo
  • D. Morcillo


Acromioclavicular joint injuries represent nearly half of all athletic shoulder injuries. Stability of this joint depends on the integrity of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments. Classification is based on the structures injured and joint stability. The majority of injuries are type II incomplete acromioclavicular separations and can be successfully treated non-surgically. Acute types IV, V, and VI are less common and surgical treatment is recommended. The treatment of type III injuries is controversial, but comparative studies and meta-analysis clearly favor a non-surgical approach, even in overhead-throwing athletes. Surgery in the repair of type III AC joint injuries should be reserved for athletes who remain symptomatic after conservative treatment. The goal of surgical intervention is to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments, thereby furnishing joint stability in all planes.


Coracoid Process Distal Clavicle Coracoclavicular Ligament Trapezoid Ligament Distal Clavicle Resection 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Calvo
  • D. Morcillo

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