The Philosophy of Biotechnology

Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG, volume 0)


Biotechnologies are those technologies living organisms use to keep themselves alive and which, once discovered, human beings use to make products useful to them. Biotechnologies are at the base of the phenomenon of life and so they are naturally present in nature. They are not invented by man, they are instead discovered while studying the phenomenon of life. So biotechnologies differ from techno


Oxaliplatin Onic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Issaq HJ, Van KN, Waybright TJ et al (2009) Analytical and statistical approaches to metabolomics research. J Sep Sci 32:2183–2199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang LN, Zhou Y, Zhu TY et al (2008) Prediction of acute cellular renal allograft rejection by urinary metabolomics using MALDI-FTMS. J Proteome Res 7:3597–3601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wishart DS (2005) Metabolomics: the principles and applications to transplantation. Am J Transplant 5:2814–2820CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Henneges C, Bullinger D, Fux R et al (2009) Prediction of breast cancer by profiling of urinary RNA metabolites using Support Vector Machine-based feature selection. BMC Cancer 9:104–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chan CE, Koh PK, Mal M et al (2009) Metabolic profiling of human colorectal cancer using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). J Proteome Res 8:352–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yanga J, Xua G, Zhenga Y et al (2004) Diagnosis of liver cancer using HPLC-based metabonomics avoiding false-positive result from hepatitis and hepatocirrhosis diseases. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 813:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Claudino WM, Quattrone A, Biganzoli L et al (2007) Metabolomics: available results, current research projects in breast cancer, and future applications. J Clin Oncol 25:2840–2846CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brindle JT, Antti H, Holmes E et al (2002) Rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of the presence and severity of coronary heart disease using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics. Nature Medicine 8:1439–1444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barba I, de Leon G, Martin E et al (2008) Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics predicts exercise-induced ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Magn Reson Med 60:27–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cesario A, Galetta D, Russo P et al (2003) The role of the surgeon in translational research. Lancet 362:1082CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gittes GK (2006) The surgeon-scientist in a new biomedical research era. Surgery 140:123–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buchwald H (1981) The scientist-surgeon. Am J Surg 142:245–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mocellin S, Lise M, Nitti D (2005) Targeted therapy for colorectal cancer: mapping the way. Trends Mol Med 11:327–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mocellin S, Provenzano M, Rossi CR et al (2005) DNA array-based gene profiling: from surgical specimen to the molecular portrait of cancer. Ann Surg 241:16–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mocellin S, Rossi CR, Traldi P et al (2004) Molecular oncology in the post-genomic era: the challenge of proteomics. Trends Mol Med 10:24–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Calderon-Margalit R, Paltiel O (2004) Prevention of breast cancer in women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a criticai review of the literature. Int J Cancer 112:357–364CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Petricoin EF 3rd, Bichsel VE, Calvert VS et al (2005) Mapping molecular networks using proteomics: a vision for patient-tailored combination therapy. J Clin Onco1 23:3614–3621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nitti D, Belluco C, Mammano E (2002) Low level of p27(Kip1) protein expression in gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with disease progression and poor outcome. J Surg Oncol 81:167–175; discussion 175–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lise M, Mocellin S, Pilati PL, Nitti D (2005) Colorectal liver metastasis: towards the integration of conventional and molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches. Front Biosci 10:3042–3057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang Y, Jatkoe T, Zhang Y et al (2004) Gene expression profiles and molecular markers to predict recurrence of Dukes’ B colon cancer. J Clin Oncol 22:1564–1571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Resnik MB, Routhier J, Konkin T et al (2004) Epidermal growth factor receptor, c-MET, beta-catenin, and p53 expression as prognostic indicators in stage II colon cancer: a tissue microarray study. Clin Cancer Res 10:3069–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mocelli S, Rossi C, Pilati P et al (2003) Quantitative real time PCR: a powerful ally in cancer research. Trends Moi Med 9:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Takeuchi H, Morton DL, Kuo C et al (2004) Prognostic significance of molecular upstaging of paraffin-embedded sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma patients. J Clin Onco1 22:2671–2680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zippelius A, Pantel K (2000) RT-PCR-based detection of occult disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients with solid tumors. An overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci 906:110–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mariadason JM, Arango D, Shi Q et al (2003) Gene expression profiling-based prediction of response of colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil and camptothecin. Cancer Res 63:8791–8812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Arango D, Wilson AJ, Shi Q et al (2004) Molecular mechanisms of action and prediction of response to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer cells. Br J Cancer 91:1931–1946CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiological, Surgical and Emergency SciencesSecond University of NaplesNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations