Traumatic Lesions of the Peripheral Nerves
Traumatic peripheral nerve lesions are relatively rare in the pediatric age group and are generally distinguished by a more rapid healing process and an improved prognosis compared to lesions observed in adults. The type of nerve injury varies according to age. Nerve lesions from sprains and accidental insult during treatment of peripheral nerves, as happens in particular with the sciatic nerve, generally occur during the neonatal period; lacerations from cuts or compression of a nerve can occur in children over 3 years of age. In pre-adolescence, the most frequent causes of nerve lesion are intra-articular dislocation, and fractures of the elbow (especially supracondylar fractures) and knee, which are sometimes a secondary consequence of sports injuries. Supracondylar fractures of the elbow with severe dislocation of the bone fragments can lead to a nerve lesion of the median nerve and the ulna, while the common lesion of the peroneal nerve is most frequently caused by spraining the knee during sports such as football and skiing. Nerve deficits resulting from elbow fractures generally have a positive evolution with a relatively rapid spontaneous recovery. In adolescents, peripheral nerve lesions are similar to those encountered in adults and are mainly caused by road accidents or by wounds from firearms or knives.
KeywordsMedian Nerve Brachial Plexus Radial Nerve Nerve Lesion Supracondylar Fracture
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