Diseases of the Esophagus and Stomach

  • Marc S. Levine
  • Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah


The esophagus and stomach are susceptible to a wide spectrum of diseases, including benign and malignant tumors, inflammatory diseases, and other conditions. For the diagnosis of this large variety of disorders, multimodality imaging is required. Barium studies, particularly double-contrast studies, continue to have a major role in the diagnostic work-up of inflammatory diseases and in post-operative follow-up, whereas cross-sectional imaging studies, particularly multidetector computed tomography CT (MDCT), is used in the pre-operative staging of oncological disorders. In this chapter, we review the most frequent diseases and describe the use of different imaging modalities for their diagnostic work-up.


Barium Study Gastric Lymphoma Gastric Malt Lymphoma Pylorus Gastritis Erosive Gastritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Graziani L, Bearzi I, Romagnoli A et al (1985) Significance of diffuse granularity and nodularity of the esophageal mucosa at double-contrast radiography. Gastrointest Radiol 10:1–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gupta S, Levine MS, Rubesin SE et al (2003) Usefulness of barium studies for differentiating benign and malignant strictures of the esophagus. AJR 180:737–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Levine MS, Kressel HY, Caroline DF et al (1983) Barrett esophagus: reticular pattern of the mucosa. Radiology 147:663–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levine MS, Macones AJ, Laufer I (1985) Candida esophagitis: accuracy of radiographic diagnosis. Radiology 154:581–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Levine MS, Woldenberg R, Herlinger H, Laufer I (1987) Opportunistic esophagitis in AIDS: radiographic diagnosis. Radiology 165:815–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levine MS, Loevner LA, Saul SH et al (1988) Herpes esophagitis: sensitivity of double-contrast esophagography. AJR 151:57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sor S, Levine MS, Kowalski TE et al (1995) Giant ulcers of the esophagus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings. Radiology 194:447–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bova JG, Dutton NE, Goldstein HM, Hoberman LJ (1987) Medication-induced esophagitis diagnosed by double-contrast esophagography. AJR 148:731–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zimmerman SL, Levine MS, Rubesin SE et al (2005) Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: the ringed esophagus. Radiology 236:159–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levine MS, Dillon EC, Saul SH, Laufer I (1986) Early esophageal cancer. AJR 146:507–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levine MS, Verstandig A, Laufer I (1986) Serpiginous gastric erosions caused by aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. AJR 146:31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sohn J, Levine MS, Furth EE et al (1995) Helicobacter pylori gastritis: radiographic findings. Radiology 195:763–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Levine MS, Creteur V, Kressel HY et al (1987) Benign gastric ulcers: diagnosis and follow-up with double-contrast radiography. Radiology 164:9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Levine MS, Kelly MR, Laufer I et al (1993) Gastrocolic fistulas: the increasing role of aspirin. Radiology 187:359–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levine MS, Kong V, Rubesin SE et al (1990) Scirrhous carcinoma of the stomach: radiographic and endoscopic diagnosis. Radiology 175:151–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    White RM, Levine MS, Enterline HT, Laufer I (1985) Early gastric cancer: recent experience. Radiology 155:25–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yoo CC, Levine MS, Furth EE et al (1998) Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: radiographic findings in six patients. Radiology 208:239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miettinen M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Sobin LH, Lasota J (2000) Esophageal stromal tumors: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 17 cases and comparison with esophageal leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol 24:211–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Galmiche JP, Clouse RE, Balint A et al (2006) Functional esophageal disorders. Gastroenterology 130:1459–1465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jung M (2005) [Mucosectomy as sufficient therapy for early squamous cell]. Chirurg 76:1018–1024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kutup A, Link BC, Schurr PG et al (2007) Quality control of endoscopic ultrasound in preoperative staging of esophageal cancer. Endoscopy 39:715–719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prokop M. New challenges in MDCT (2005) Eur Radiol 15 Suppl 5:E35–45Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ba-Ssalamah A, Prokop M, Uffmann M et al (2003) Dedicated multidetector CT of the stomach: spectrum of diseases. Radiographics 23:625–644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ba-Ssalamah A, Zacherl J, Noebauer-Huhmann IM et al (2009) Dedicated multi-detector CT of the esophagus: spectrum of diseases. Abdom Imaging 34:3–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Westerterp M, van Westreenen HL, Reitsma JB et al (2005) Esophageal cancer: CT, endoscopic US and FDG PET for assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy-systematic review. Radiology 236:841–851CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Luketich JD, Schauer PR, Meltzer CC et al (1997) Role of positron emission tomography in staging esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 64:765–769CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS (2006) Maximum standardized uptake values on positron emission tomography of esophageal cancer predicts stage, tumor biology, and survival. Ann Thorac Surg 82:391–394; discussion 394-395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen J, Cheong JH, Yun MJ et al (2005) Improvement in preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma with positron emission tomography. Cancer 103:2383–2390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hsu WH, Hsu PK, Wang SJ et al (2009) Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in predicting locoregional invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg 87:1564–1568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Suga K, Yasuhiko K, Hiyama A et al (2009) F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in a patient with bilateral orbital and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Clin Nucl Med 34:589–593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Antoch G, Kanja J, Bauer S et al (2004) Comparison of PET, CT, and dual-modality PET/CT imaging for monitoring of imatinib (STI571) therapy in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Nucl Med 45:357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc S. Levine
    • 1
  • Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyPenn Radiology at the Hospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Medical University of ViennaGeneral Hospital of ViennaWienAustria

Personalised recommendations