Advertisement

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer

  • Jelle O. Barentsz
  • Stijn W. T. P. J. Heijmink
  • Christina Hulsbergen-van der Kaa
  • Caroline Hoeks
  • Jurgen J. Futterer

Abstract

With a total of 192,280 new cases predicted for 2009, prostate cancer (PC) now accounts for 25% of all new male cancers diagnosed in the USA [1]. Furthermore, in their lifetime, one in six men will be clinically diagnosed with PC, although many more will be found to have histological evidence of PC at autopsy [2, 3, 4]. Presently, approximately one in ten men will die of PC [5, 6]. The ever-aging population and more widespread use of the blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test [7, 8], as well as the tendency to apply lower cut-off levels for this test [9], will further increase the diagnosis of PC [10].

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Gleason Score Endorectal Coil Rostate Cancer Nostic Accurac 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

Anatomy

  1. Coakley FV, Hricak H (2000) Radiological anatomy of the prostate gland: a clinical approach. Radiol Clin N Amer 38:15–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hricak H, Dooms GC, McNeal et al (1987) MR imaging of the prostate gland 148:51–58Google Scholar
  3. McNeal JE (1988) Normal histology of the prostate. Amer J Surg Pathol 12:619–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sommer FG, McNeal JE, Carrol CL (1986) MR depiction of zonal anatomy of the prostate at 1.5T. JCAT 1096:983–989Google Scholar
  5. Villiers G, De Meereleer GO (2007) MRI anatomy of the prostate and application of MRI in radiotherapy planning. Eur J Radiol 63:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Prostate Cancer

  1. Futterer JJ, Heijmink SWTP, Scheenen TWJ et al (2006) Prostate cancer localization with dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopic Imaging. Radiology 241:449–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hambrock T, Somford DM, Hoeks C et al (2010) Magnetic resonance imaging guided prostate biopsy in men with repeat negative biopsies and increased prostate specific antigen. J Urol 183:520–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Heesakkers RAM, Hoevels AM, Jager GJ et al (2008) MRI with a lymph-node-specific contrast agent as an alternative to CT scan and lymph-node dissection in patients with prostate cancer: a prospective multicohort study. Lancet Oncol 9:850–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hrick H, Choyke, Eberhart SC et al (2007) Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective. Radiology 243:28–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hoevels AM, Heesakkers RAM, Adang EM et al (2008) The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol 3:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jager GJ, Severens JL, Thornbury JR et al (2000) Prostate cancer staging: should MR imaging be used? A decision analytic approach. Radiology 215:445–451PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al (2009) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 59:225–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carter HB, Piantadosi S, Isaacs JT (1990) Clinical evidence for and implications of the multistep development of prostate cancer. J Urol 143:742–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parkin DM, Bray FI, Devesa SS (2001) Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture. Eur J Cancer 37 Suppl 8:S4–S66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Konety BR, Bird VY, Deorah S, Dahmoush L (2005) Comparison of the incidence of latent prostate cancer detected at autopsy before and after the prostate specific antigen era. J Urol 174:1785–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crawford ED (2003) Epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urology 62(6 Suppl 1):3–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stewart SL, King JB, Thompson TD et al (2004) Cancer mortality surveillance — United States, 1990–2000. MMWR Surveill Summ 53:1–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Catalona WJ, Loeb S, Han M (2006) Viewpoint: expanding prostate cancer screening. Ann Intern Med 144:441–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoffman RM (2006) Viewpoint: limiting prostate cancer screening. Ann Intern Med 144:438–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Graif T, Loeb S, Roehl KA et al (2007) Under Diagnosis and Over Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer. J Urol 178:88–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY et al (2002) The economic burden of prostate cancer, California, 1998. Cancer 94:2906–2913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mangar SA, Huddart RA, Parker CC et al (2005) Technological advances in radiotherapy for the treatment of localised prostate cancer. European Journal of Cancer 41:908–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meraney AM, Haese A, Palisaar J et al (2005) Surgical management of prostate cancer: Advances based on a rational approach to the data. European Journal of Cancer 41:888–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bucci MK, Bevan A, Roach M, III (2005) Advances in radiation therapy: Conventional to 3D, to IMRT, to 4D, and Beyond. CA Cancer J Clin 55:117–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hricak H, Wang L, Wei DC et al (2004) The role of preoperative endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in the decision regarding whether to preserve or resect neurovascular bundles during radical retropubic prostatectomy. Cancer 100:2655–2663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cellini N, Morganti AG, Mattiucci GC et al (2002) Analysis of intraprostatic failures in patients treated with hormonal therapy and radiotherapy: implications for conformal therapy planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:595–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roach M, III (2004) Reducing the toxicity associated with the use of radiotherapy in men with localized prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 31:353–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baxter NN, Tepper JE, Durham SB et al (2005) Increased risk of rectal cancer after prostate radiation: A population-based study. Gastroenterology 128:819–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steyn JH, Smith FW (1982) Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate. Br J Urol 54:726–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hricak H, Williams RD, Spring DB et al (1983) Anatomy and pathology of the male pelvis by magnetic resonance imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 141:1101–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Villeirs GM, Oosterlinck W, Vanherreweghe E, De Meerleer GO (2008) A qualitative approach to combined magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Eur J Radiol Dec 10Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tanimoto A, Nakashima J, Kohno H et al (2007) Prostate cancer screening: the clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic MR imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 25:146–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scheenen TW, Klomp DW, Roll SA et al (2004) Fast acquisition-weighted three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human prostate. Magn Reson Med 52:80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen ME, Johnston DA, Tang K et al (2000) Detailed mapping of prostate carcinoma foci: biopsy strategy implications. Cancer 89:1800–1809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McNeal JE, Redwine EA, Freiha FS, Stamey TA (1988) Zonal distribution of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Correlation with histologic pattern and direction of spread. Am J Surg Pathol 12:897–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller GJ, Cygan JM (1994) Morphology of prostate cancer: the effects of multifocality on histological grade, tumor volume and capsule penetration. J Urol 152:1709–1713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brossner C, Winterholer A, Roehlich M et al (2003) Distribution of prostate carcinoma foci within the peripheral zone: analysis of 8,062 prostate biopsy cores. World J Urol 21: 163–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horninger W, Reissigl A, Rogatsch H et al (2000) Prostate cancer screening in the Tyrol, Austria: experience and results. Eur J Cancer 36:1322–1335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ohori M, Kattan M, Scardino PT, Wheeler TM (2004) Radical prostatectomy for carcinoma of the prostate. Mod Pathol 17:349–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tempany CM, Zhou X, Zerhouni EA et al (1994) Staging of prostate cancer: results of Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group project comparison of three MR imaging techniques. Radiology 192:47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cruz M, Tsuda K, Narumi Y et al (2002) Characterization of low-intensity lesions in the peripheral zone of prostate on prebiopsy endorectal coil MR imaging. Eur Radiol 12:357–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Claus FG, Hricak H, Hattery RR (2004) Pretreatment evaluation of prostate cancer: role of MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy. Radiographics 24:S167–S180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang L, Mazaheri Y, Zhang J et al (2008) Assessment of biologic aggressiveness of prostate cancer: correlation of MR signal intensity with Gleason grade after radical prostatectomy. Radiology 246:168–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Akin O, Sala E, Moskowitz CS et al (2006) Transition zone prostate cancers: features, detection, localization, and staging at endorectal MR imaging. Radiology 239:784–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mullerad M, Hricak H, Kuroiwa K et al (2005) Comparison of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging, guided prostate biopsy and digital rectal examination in the preoperative anatomical localization of prostate cancer. J Urol 174:2158–2163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beyersdorff D, Taupitz M, Winkelmann B et al (2002) Patients with a history of elevated prostate-specific antigen levels and negative transrectal US-guided quadrant or sextant biopsy results: value of MR imaging. Radiology 224:701–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tamada T, Sone T, Jo Y et al (2008) Prostate cancer: relationships between postbiopsy hemorrhage and tumor detectability at MR diagnosis. Radiology 248:531–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sato C, Naganawa S, Nakamura T et al (2005) Differentiation of noncancerous tissue and cancer lesions by apparent diffusion coefficient values in transition and peripheral zones of the prostate. J Magn Reson Imaging 21:258–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zelhof B, Pickles M, Liney G et al (2009) Correlation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance data with cellularity in prostate cancer. BJU Int 103:883–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mazaheri Y, Shukla-Dave A, Hricak H et al (2008) Prostate cancer: identification with combined diffusion-weighted MR imaging and 3D 1H MR spectroscopic imaging — correlation with pathologic findings. Radiology 246:480–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Haider MA, Van Der Kwast TH, Tanguay J et al (2007) Combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI for localization of prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 189:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yoshimitsu K, Kiyoshima K, Irie H et al (2008) Usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient map in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: correlation with stepwise histopathology. J Magn Reson Imaging 27:132–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Langer DL, Van Der Kwast TH, Evans AJ et al (2009) Prostate cancer detection with multi-parametric MRI: logistic regression analysis of quantitative T2, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 30:327–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gibbs P, Pickles MD, Turnbull LW (2006) Diffusion imaging of the prostate at 3.0 tesla. Invest Radiol 41:185–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pickles MD, Gibbs P, Sreenivas M, Turnbull LW (2006) Diffusion-weighted imaging of normal and malignant prostate tissue at 3.0T. J Magn Reson Imaging 23:130–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Miao H, Fukatsu H, Ishigaki T (2007) Prostate cancer detection with 3-T MRI: comparison of diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted imaging. Eur J Radiol 61:297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Barentsz JO, Engelbrecht M, Jager GJ et al (1999) Fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of urinary bladder and prostate cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging 10:295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Padhani AR, Gapinski CJ, Macvicar DA et al (2000) Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of prostate cancer: correlation with morphology and tumour stage, histological grade and PSA. Clin Radiol 55:99–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Engelbrecht MR, Huisman HJ, Laheij RJ et al (2003) Discrimination of prostate cancer from normal peripheral zone and central gland tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 229:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Van Dorsten FA, Van Der Graaf M, Engelbrecht MR et al (2004) Combined quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging of human prostate cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging 20:279–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Runge VM (2000) Safety of approved MR contrast media for intravenous injection. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:205–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lin SP, Brown JJ (2007) MR contrast agents: physical and pharmacologic basics. J Magn Reson Imaging 25:884–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Hricak H et al (1996) Three-dimensional H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging of the in situ human prostate with high (0.24–0.7-cm3) spatial resolution. Radiology 198:795–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coakley FV, Qayyum A, Kurhanewicz J (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic imaging of prostate cancer. J Urol 170:S69–S75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zakian KL, Sircar K, Hricak H et al (2005) Correlation of proton MR spectroscopic imaging with gleason score based on step-section pathologic analysis after radical prostatectomy. Radiology 234:804–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Scheenen TW, Klomp DW, Roll SA et al (2004) Fast acquisition-weighted three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human prostate. Magn Reson Med 52:80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scheidler J, Hricak H, Vigneron DB et al (1999) Prostate cancer: localization with three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopic imaging — clinicopathologic study. Radiology 213:473–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wefer AE, Hricak H, Vigneron DB et al (2000) Sextant localization of prostate cancer: comparison of sextant biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with step section histology. J Urol 164: 400–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fütterer JJ, Heijmink SWTPJ, Scheenen TWJ et al (2006) Prostate cancer localization with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopic imaging. Radiology 241:449–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shukla-Dave A, Hricak H, Kattan MW et al (2007) The utility of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for predicting insignificant prostate cancer: an initial analysis. BJU Int 99:786–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weinreb JC, Blume JD, Coakley FV et al (2009) Prostate cancer: sextant localization at MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging before prostatectomy — results of ACRIN prospective multi-institutional clinicopathologic study. Radiology 251:122–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Noguchi M, Stamey TA, McNeal JE, Yemoto CM (2001) Relationship between systematic biopsies and histological features of 222 radical prostatectomy specimens: lack of prediction of tumor significance for men with nonpalpable prostate cancer. J Urol 166:104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kumar V, Jagannathan NR, Kumar R et al (2007) Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of prostate voxels identified as suspicious of malignancy on three-dimensional (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging in patients with abnormal digital rectal examination or raised prostate specific antigen level of 4–10 ng/ml. NMR Biomed 20:11–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Prando A, Kurhanewicz J, Borges AP et al (2005) Prostatic biopsy directed with endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging findings in patients with elevated prostate specific antigen levels and prior negative biopsy findings: early experience. Radiology 236:903–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Anastasiadis AG, Lichy MP, Nagele U et al (2006) MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate increases diagnostic performance in men with elevated or increasing PSA levels after previous negative TRUS biopsies. Eur Urol Oct 50:738–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Beyersdorff D, Winkel A, Hamm B et al (2005) MR imagingguided prostate biopsy with a closed MR unit at 1.5 T: initial results. Radiology 234:576–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Engelhard K, Hollenbach HP, Kiefer B et al (2006) Prostate biopsy in the supine position in a standard 1.5-T scanner under real time MR-imaging control using a MR-compatible endorectal biopsy device. Eur Radiol 16:1237–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hambrock T, Futterer JJ, Huisman HJ et al (2008) Thirty-twochannel coil 3T magnetic resonance-guided biopsies of prostate tumor suspicious regions identified on multimodality 3T magnetic resonance imaging: technique and feasibility. Invest Radiol;43:686–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hambrock T (2009) The Value of 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Prostate Biopsies in Men with repeptitive Negative Biopsies and Elevated PSAGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pondman KM, Futterer JJ, ten HB et al (2008) MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review. Eur Urol 54:517–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gleason DF, Mellinger GT (1974) Prediction of prognosis for prostatic adenocarcinoma by combined histological grading and clinical staging. J Urol 111(1):58–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Noguchi M, Stamey TA, McNeal JE, Yemoto CM (2001) Relationship between systematic biopsies and histological features of 222 radical prostatectomy specimens: lack of prediction of tumor significance for men with nonpalpable prostate cancer. J Urol 166:104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ruijter E, van LG, Miller G et al (2000) Errors in histological grading by prostatic needle biopsy specimens: frequency and predisposing factors. J Pathol 192:229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wang L, Mazaheri Y, Zhang J et al (2008) Assessment of biologic aggressiveness of prostate cancer: correlation of MR signal intensity with Gleason grade after radical prostatectomy. Radiology 246:168–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ikonen S, Karkkainen P, Kivisaari L (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging of prostatic cancer: does detection vary between high and low gleason score tumors? Prostate 43:43–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zakian KL, Sircar K, Hricak H et al (2005) Correlation of proton MR spectroscopic imaging with gleason score based on step-section pathologic analysis after radical prostatectomy. Radiology 234:804–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    deSouza NM, Riches SF, Vanas NJ et al (2008) Diffusionweighted magnetic resonance imaging: a potential non-invasive marker of tumour aggressiveness in localized prostate cancer. Clin Radiol 63:774–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kurhanewicz J, Swanson MG, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB (2002) Combined magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic imaging approach to molecular imaging of prostate cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging 16:451–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tamada T, Sone T, Jo Y (2008) Apparent diffusion coefficient values in peripheral and transition zones of the prostate: comparison between normal and malignant prostatic tissues and correlation with histologic grade. J Magn Reson Imaging 28:720–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hosseinzadeh K, Schwarz SD (2004) Endorectal diffusionweighted imaging in prostate cancer to differentiate malignant and benign peripheral zone tissue. J Magn Reson Imaging 20:654–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wang L, Mullerad M, Chen HN et al (2004) Prostate cancer: incremental value of endorectal MR imaging findings for prediction of extracapsular extension. Radiology 232:133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sonnad SS, Langlotz CP, Schwartz JS (2001) Accuracy of MR imaging for staging prostate cancer: a meta-analysis to examine the effect of technologic change. Acad Radiol 8:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Engelbrecht MR, Jager GJ, Laheij RJ et al (2002) Local staging of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis. Eur Radiol 12:2294–2302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cornud F, Flam T, Chauveinc L et al (2002) Extraprostatic spread of clinically localized prostate cancer: factors predictive of pT3 tumor and of positive endorectal MR imaging examination results. Radiology 224:203–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Langlotz CP, Schnall MD, Malkowicz SB, Schwartz JS (1996) Cost-effectiveness of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging for the staging of prostate cancer. Acad Radiol 1:S24–S27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jager GJ, Severens JL, Thornbury JR et al (2000) Prostate cancer staging: should MR imaging be used? — A decision analytic approach. Radiology 215:445–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wang L, Hricak H, Kattan MW et al (2006) Prediction of organ-confined prostate cancer: incremental value of MR Imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging to staging nomograms. Radiology 238:597–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wang L, Hricak H, Kattan MW et al (2007) Prediction of seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: incremental value of adding endorectal MR imaging to the Kattan nomogram. Radiology 242:182–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McKenna DA, Coakley FV, Westphalen AC et al (2008) Prostate Cancer: Role of Pretreatment MR in Predicting Outcome after External-Beam Radiation Therapy — Initial Experience. Radiology 247:141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ren J, Huan Y, Li F et al (2009) Combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI for diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with prostate carcinoma. J Magn Reson Imaging 30:351–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ren J, Huan Y, Wang H et al (2009) Seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: prediction with combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Eur Radiol 19:2481–2486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yu KK, Scheidler J, Hricak H et al (1999) Prostate cancer: prediction of extracapsular extension with endorectal MR imaging and three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopic imaging. Radiology 213:481–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mullerad M, Hricak H, Wang L et al (2004) Prostate cancer: detection of extracapsular extension by genitourinary and general body radiologists at MR imaging. Radiology 232:140–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fütterer JJ, Engelbrecht MR, Huisman HJ et al (2005) Staging Prostate Cancer with Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Endorectal MR Imaging prior to Radical Prostatectomy: Experienced versus Less Experienced Readers. Radiology 237:541–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wang L, Zhang J, Schwartz LH et al (2007) Incremental value of multiplanar cross-referencing for prostate cancer staging with endorectal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Akin O, Riedl CC, Ishill NM (2009) Interactive dedicated training curriculum improves accuracy in the interpretation of MR imaging of prostate cancer. Eur Radiol Nov 17Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fütterer JJ, Heijmink SW, Scheenen TW et al (2006) Prostate cancer: local staging at 3-T endorectal MR imaging — early experience. Radiology 238:184–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Heijmink SWTPJ, Futterer JJ, Hambrock T et al (2007) Prostate Cancer: Body-Array versus Endorectal Coil MR Imaging at 3 T-Comparison of Image Quality, Localization, and Staging Performance. Radiology 244:184–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Partin AW, Mangold LA, Lamm DM et al (2001) Contemporary update of prostate cancer staging nomograms (Partin Tables) for the new millennium. Urology 2001 58:843–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Narayan P, Gajendran V, Taylor SP et al (1995) The role of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy-based staging, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen, and biopsy Gleason score in prediction of final pathologic diagnosis in prostate cancer. Urology 46:205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salo JO, Kivisaari L, Rannikko S, Lehtonen T (1986) The value of CT in detecting pelvic lymph node metastases in cases of bladder and prostate carcinoma. Scand J Urol Nephrol 20:261–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jager GJ, Barentsz JO, Oosterhof GO et al (1996) Pelvic adenopathy in prostatic and urinary bladder carcinoma: MR imaging with a three-dimensional TI-weighted magnetization-prepared-rapid gradient-echo sequence. AJR Am J Roentgenol 167:1503–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Heesakkers RA, Hovels AM, Jager GJ et al (2008) MRI with a lymph-node-specific contrast agent as an alternative to CT scan and lymph-node dissection in patients with prostate cancer: a prospective multicohort study. Lancet Oncol 9:850–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wolf JS, Jr., Cher M, Dall’era M et al (1995) The use and accuracy of cross-sectional imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology for detection of pelvic lymph node metastases before radical prostatectomy. J Urol Mar 153:993–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hovels AM, Heesakkers RA, Adang EM et al (2008) The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol 63:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Oyen RH, Van Poppel HP, Ameye FE et al (1994) Lymph node staging of localized prostatic carcinoma with CT and CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: prospective study of 285 patients. Radiology 190:315–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tiguert R, Gheiler EL, Tefilli MV et al (1999) Lymph node size does not correlate with the presence of prostate cancer metastasis. Urology 53:367–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Levran Z, Gonzalez JA, Diokno AC et al (1995) Are pelvic computed tomography, bone scan and pelvic lymphadenectomy necessary in the staging of prostatic cancer? Br J Urol 75:778–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wolf JS Jr, Cher M, Dall’era M et al (1995) The use and accuracy of cross-sectional imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology for detection of pelvic lymph node metastases before radical prostatectomy. J Urol 153:993–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Harisinghani MG, Barentsz J, Hahn PF et al (2003) Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2003 348:2491–2499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Heesakkers RA, Jager GJ, Hövels AM et al (2009) Prostate cancer: detection of lymph node metastases outside the routine surgical area with ferumoxtran-10-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 251:408–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Will O, Purkayastha S, Chan C et al (2005) Diagnostic precision of nanoparticle-enhanced MRI for lymph-node metastases: a meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 7:52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    O’Donoghue EP, Constable AR, Sherwood T et al (1978) Bone scanning and plasma phosphatases in carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Urol 50:172–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rybak LD, Rosenthal DI (2001) Radiological imaging for the diagnosis of bone metastases. Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine 45:53–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lecouvet FE, Geukens D, Stainier A et al (2007) Magnetic resonance imaging of the axial skeleton for detecting bone metastases in patients with high-risk prostate cancer: diagnostic and cost-effectiveness and comparison with current detection strategies. J Clin Oncol 25:3281–3287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tombal B, Rezazadeh A, Therasse P et al (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging of the axial skeleton enables objective measurement of tumor response on prostate cancer bone metastases. Prostate 65:178–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Cumming J, Hacking N, Fairhurst J et al (1990) Distribution of bony metastases in prostatic carcinoma. Br J Urol 66:411–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pound CR, Brawer MK, Partin AW (2001) Evaluation and treatment of men with biochemical prostate-specific antigen recurrence following definitive therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Rev Urol 3:72–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Horwitz EM, Vicini FA, Ziaja EL et al (1998) The correlation between the ASTRO Consensus Panel definition of biochemical failure and clinical outcome for patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation. American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:267–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Heidenreich A, Aus G, Bolla M et al (2008) EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Eur Urol 53:68–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Roach M, III, Hanks G, Thames H et al (2006) Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65:965–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Crook J, Robertson S, Collin G et al (1993) Clinical relevance of trans-rectal ultrasound, biopsy, and serum prostate-specific antigen following external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27:31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Leventis AK, Shariat SF, Slawin KM (2001) Local recurrence after radical prostatectomy: correlation of US features with prostatic fossa biopsy findings. Radiology 219:432–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chan TW, Kressel HY (1991) Prostate and seminal vesicles after irradiation: MR appearance. J Magn Reson Imaging 1:503–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sala E, Eberhardt SC, Akin O et al (2006) Endorectal MR imaging before salvage prostatectomy: tumor localization and staging. Radiology 238:176–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Coakley FV, Teh HS, Qayyum A et al (2004) Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging for locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy: preliminary experience. Radiology 233:441–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Haider MA, Chung P, Sweet J et al (2008) Dynamic contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging for localization of recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70:425–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rouviere O, Valette O, Grivolat S et al (2004) Recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy: value of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI in localizing intraprostatic tumor — correlation with biopsy findings. Urology 63:922–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kim CK, Park BK, Lee HM (2009) Prediction of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: Incremental value of 3T diffusion-weighted MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 29:391–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sella T, Schwartz LH, Swindle PW et al (2004) Suspected local recurrence after radical prostatectomy: endorectal coil MR imaging. Radiology 231:379–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Casciani E, Polettini E, Carmenini E et al (2008) Endorectal and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of local recurrence after radical prostatectomy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:1187–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cirillo S, Petracchini M, Scotti L et al (2009) Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla to assess local recurrence following radical prostatectomy using T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced imaging. Eur Radiol 19:761–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sciarra A, Panebianco V, Salciccia S et al (2008) Role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the detection of local recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Eur Urol 54:589–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jelle O. Barentsz
    • 1
  • Stijn W. T. P. J. Heijmink
    • 1
  • Christina Hulsbergen-van der Kaa
    • 1
  • Caroline Hoeks
    • 1
  • Jurgen J. Futterer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations