Invited Commentary

  • Clive I. Bartram


Surgery for fecal incontinence started with the Parks’ postanal repair and has now diversified into a variety of measures to improve anorectal function. However, two questions for imaging to answer remain: is the sphincter intact and what is the quality of the sphincteric muscle?


Fecal Incontinence External Anal Sphincter Internal Sphincter Anorectal Function Endoanal Ultrasound 
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  1. 1.
    Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Gold DM et al. Clinical, physiological, and radiological study of a new purpose-designed artificial bowel sphincter. Lancet 1998;352:105–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Williams AB, Bartram CI, Modhwadia D et al. Endocoil magnetic resonance imaging quantification of external anal sphincter atrophy. Br J Surg 2001;88:853–859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clive I. Bartram
    • 1
  1. 1.Diagnostic ImagingPrincess Grace HospitalLondonUK

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