A Comparative Analysis of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging Techniques
One of the most important issues in the field of ultrasound medical imaging using contrast agents is the development of techniques able to separate the response of contrast media from the response of biological tissues. In the literature, one can find various solutions concerning the use of multiple transmitted signals and the combination of the related echoes. Moreover, such multi-pulse techniques can be combined with a coded excitation in order to increase both the contrast to tissue ratio and the signal to noise ratio. The effectiveness of these techniques depends on many parameters concerning the medical ultrasound device and the physical scenario involved. In particular, some undesired effects always present in real conditions, like the signal distortion caused by the hardware equipment and by non-linear tissue propagation, the thermal noise, and the tissue movements can significantly reduce the theoretical performance. In this chapter a simulation tool is proposed that allows one to calculate the backscattered echo from a population of contrast agents immersed in a biological tissue, considering all the mentioned effects. With this tool, an assessment of the performance of a set of multi-pulse techniques has been carried out under realistic working conditions, showing that sharp differences occur among the techniques, depending on the specific setup considered.
KeywordsSimulation Tool Thermal Noise Beam Signal Ultrasound Contrast Agent Pulse Inversion
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 6.Crocco M, Pellegretti P, Sciallero C and Trucco A (2009) Combining Multi-Pulse Excitation and Chirp Coding in Contrast Enhanced Echographic Imaging. Measurement Science and Technology (submitted)Google Scholar
- 8.Lurton X (2002) An Introduction to Underwater Acoustics: Principles and Applications. Springer Praxis Publishing, Chichester UKGoogle Scholar
- 12.Phillips PJ (2001) Contrast Pulse Sequences (CPS): Imaging Nonlinear Microbubbles. 2001 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. Atlanta, USA 2:1739–1745Google Scholar
- 13.Skolnik M (2001) Introduction to Radar Systems 3rd edn. Mc Graw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Szabo TL (2004) Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out. Elsevier Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 17.van der Meer SM, Versluis M, Lohse D, Chin CT, Bouakaz A and de Jong N (2004) The Resonance Frequency of SonVueTM. 2004 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. Montréal, Canada, pp. 343–345Google Scholar