Tetraplegic Forms

  • Adriano Ferrari
  • Manuela Lodesani
  • Simonetta Muzzini
  • Rosita Pascale
  • Silvia Sassi


The literature defines tetraplegia (quadriplegia), or tetraparesis, as those cases of cerebral palsy (CP) characterized by:
  • “Equivalent” involvement of all four limbs

  • Difficult somatic growth

  • Often severe mental retardation

  • Frequent visual disorders (gaze paralysis, reduced visual acuity, visual agnosia, etc.)

  • Possible hearing deficiency (deafness, intolerance to particular types of noise)

  • Oro-facial impairment, secondary to pseudobulbar palsy, with consequent disorders of mastication, deglutition, facial expression and speech

  • Epilepsy with fits difficult to control (infantile spasms, etc.)

  • Severe periventricular leukomalacia with poroencephalic cysts as typical cerebral lesion.


Cerebral Palsy Body Axis Upright Standing Support Reaction Spastic Diplegia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriano Ferrari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manuela Lodesani
    • 1
  • Simonetta Muzzini
    • 1
  • Rosita Pascale
    • 3
  • Silvia Sassi
    • 1
  1. 1.Child Rehabilitation UnitS. Maria Nuova HospitalReggio Emilia
  2. 2.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaReggio Emilia
  3. 3.Department of Developmental NeuroscienceStella Maris Scientific InstitutePisa

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