Advertisement

Infectious Complications

  • Nicola Petrosillo
  • Cecilia M. J. Drapeau
Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG)

Abstract

Infections are strongly associated with Crohn’s disease (CD), both in their etiopathogenesis and in their clinical course [1]. The hypothesis that infective agents are linked to the onset of CD is supported by several clinical and experimental observations, although a direct causality remains to be demonstrated. In particular, bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), and Listeria spp. have been cited as possible causal agents of CD [1, 2, 3]. This conclusion is based on the association of MAP DNA and CD, reported in two meta-analyses [4,5]. Moreover, experimental infections of animals have demonstrated that MAP is capable of causing inflammatory bowel disease [2]. Other investigations have reported the presence of AIEC in CD biopsies and a mechanism of attachment to the diseased bowel [2,3].

Keywords

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Surgical Site Infection Infectious Complication Tuberculin Skin Test Liver Abscess 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Irving PM, Gibson PR (2008) Infections and IBD. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 5(1): 18–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lowe AM, Yansouni CP, Behr MA (2008) Causality and gastrointestinal infections: Koch, Hill, and Crohn’s. Lancet Infect Dis 8(11):720–726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barnich N, Darfeuille-Michaud A (2007) Role of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 13(42): 5571–5576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feller M, Huwiler K, Stephan R et al (2007) Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 7(9):607–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abubakar I, Myhill D, Aliyu SH, Hunter PR (2008) Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from patients with Crohn’s disease using nucleic acid-based techniques: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 14(3):401–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bernstein CN, Nayar G, Hamel A, Blanchard JF (2003) Study of animal-borne infections in the mucosas of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and population-based control. J Clin Microbiol 41(11):4986–4990CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Hertogh G, Geboes K (2004) Crohn’s disease and infections: a complex relationship. Med-Gen Med 10(3):14Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nguyen GC, Kaplan GG, Harris ML, Brant SR (2008) A national survey of the prevalence and impact of Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease patients. Am J Gastroenterol 103(6):1443–1450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sunenshine RH, McDonald LC (2006) Clostridium difficile-associated disease: new challenges from an established pathogen. Cleve Clin J Med 73(2):187–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abbas MA, Mulligan DC, Ramzan NN et al (2000) Colonic perforation in unsuspected amebic colitis. Dig Dis Sci 45(9):1836–1841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farmer RG, Hawk WA, Turnbull RB (1975) Clinical patterns in Crohn’s disease: a statistical study of 615 cases. Gastroenterology 68:627–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karaca C, Pinarbaşi B, Danalioĝlu A et al (2004) Liver abscess as a rare complication of Crohn’s disease: a case report. Turk J Gastroenterol 15(1):45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aguas M, Bastida G, Nos P et al (2007) Septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein and multiple liver abscesses in a patient with Crohn’s disease at onset. BMC Gastroenterol 7:22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maggiore R, Miller F, Stryker S, Buchman AL (2004) Meningitis and epidural abscess associated with fistulizing Crohn’s disease. Dig Dis Sci 49(9):1461–1465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zapata E, Cosme A, Ojeda E et al (2006) Psoas abscess complicating Crohn’s disease: review of 5 cases. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 98(5):393–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kavia S, Gilbert JM (2004) Crohn’s disease and discitis: J R Soc Med 97(10):484–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zöld E, Barta Z, Zeher M (2007) Spondylodiscitis representing as the very first sign of Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 13(8):1058–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Olsen S, Gilbert J (2004) Cytomegalovirus infection in Crohn’s colitis. J R Soc Med 97(7):335–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Crum NF, Lederman ER, Wallace MR (2005) Infections associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists. Medicine (Baltimore) 84(5):291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baldin B, Dozol A, Spreux A, Chichmanian RM (2005) Tuberculosis and infliximab treatment. National surveillance from January 1,2000, through June 30, 2003. Presse Med 12(5):353–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    López-San Román A, Obrador A, Fortún J et al; Grupo Espanol de Trabajo en Enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa (GETECCU) (2006) Recommendations on tuberculosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with infliximab, 2006 update. Gastroenterol Hepatol 29(2):81–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Denis B, Lefort A, Flipo RM et al (2008) Long-term follow-up of patients with tuberculosis as a complication of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antagonist therapy: safe re-initiation of TNF-alpha blockers after appropriate anti-tuberculous treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect 14(2):183–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sellam J, Hamdi H, Roy C et al; RATIO (Research Axed on Tolerance of Biotherapies) Study Group (2007) Comparison of in vitro-specific blood tests with tuberculin skin test for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis before anti-TNF therapy. Ann Rheum Dis 66(12):1610–1615CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Majoor CJ, Schreurs AJ, Weers-Pothoff G (2004) Mycobacterium xenopi infection in an immunosuppressed patient with Crohn’s disease. Thorax 59(7):631–632CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh SM, Rau NV, Cohen LB, Harris H (2004) Cutaneous nocardiosis complicating management of Crohn’s disease with infliximab and prednisone. CMAJ 171(9):1063–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ramanampamonjy RM, Laharie D, Bonnefoy B et al (2006) Infliximab therapy in Crohn’s disease complicated by Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 30(1):157–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Molina J, Núñez O, Beceiro I et al (2003) Rhomboencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes as a complication of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol 26(7):457–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wallis RS, Broder MS, Wong JY et al (2004) Granulomatous infectious diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Clin Infect Dis 38(9):1261–1265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patel TR, Patel KN, Boyarsky AH (2006) Staphylococcal liver abscess and acute cholecystitis in a patient with Crohn’s disease receiving infliximab. J Gastrointest Surg 10(1):105–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herrlinger KR, Borutta A, Meinhardt G et al (2004) Fatal staphylococcal sepsis in Crohn’s disease after infliximab. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10(5):655–656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cohen RD, Bowie WR, Enns R et al (2007) Pulmonary actinomycosis complicating infliximab therapy for Crohn’s disease. Thorax 62(11):1013–1014CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Millonig G, Kern M, Ludwiczek O et al (2006) Subfulminant hepatitis B after infliximab in Crohn’s disease: need for HBV-screening? World J Gastroenterol 12(6):974–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lemyze M, Tavernier JY, Chevalon B, Lamblin C (2003) Severe varicella zoster pneumonia during the course of treatment with azathioprine for Crohn’s disease. Rev Mal Respir 20:773–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tougeron D, Mauillon J, Tranvouez JL (2006) Severe varicella infection during treatment with infliximab for Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 30(12):1410–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ahmad NM, Ahmad KM, Younus F (2007) Severe adenovirus pneumonia (AVP) following infliximab infusion for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. J Infect 54(1):e29–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Helbling D, Breitbach TH, Krause M (2002) Disseminated cytomegalovirus infection in Crohn’s disease following anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14(12):1393–1395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bai M, Katsanos KH, Economou M et al (2006) Rectal Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a patient with Crohn’s disease: case report and review of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol 41(7):866–869CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Velayos FS, Sandborn WJ (2004) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia during maintenance anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy with infliximab for Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10(5):657–660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kaur N, Mahl TC (2007) Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) pneumonia after infliximab therapy: a review of 84 cases. Dig Dis Sci 52(6):1481–1484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Belda A, Hinojosa J, Serra B et al (2004) Systemic candidiasis and infliximab therapy. Gastroenterol Hepatol 27(6):365–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alderson JW, Van Dinter TG Jr, Opatowsky MJ, Burton EC (2005) Disseminated aspergillosis following infliximab therapy in an immunosuppressed patient with Crohn’s disease and chronic hepatitis C: a case study and review of the literature. MedGenMed 21) 7(3):7Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Walker R, Gardner L, Sindwani R (2007) Fungal nasal septal abscess in the immunocompromised patient. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 136(3):506–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jain VV, Evans T, Peterson MW (2006) Reactivation histoplasmosis after treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha in a patient from a nonendemic area. Respir Med 100(7):1291–1293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fieschi C, Allez M, Casanova JL (2005) High risk of infectious disease caused by salmonellae and mycobacteria infections in patients with Crohn disease treated with anti-interleukin-12 antibody. Clin Infect Dis 40(9):1381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Berger JR (2007) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Handb Clin Neurol 85:169–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nausheen S, Cunha BA (2007) Q fever community-acquired pneumonia in a patient with Crohn’s disease on immunosuppressive therapy. Heart Lung 36(4):300–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Uchino M, Ikeuchi H, Tsuchida T et al (2009) Surgical site infection following surgery for inflammatory bowel disease in patients with clean-contaminated wounds. World J Surg 33(5):1042–1048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Watanabe A, Kohnoe S, Shimabukuro R et al (2008) Risk factors associated with surgical site infection in upper and lower gastrointestinal surgery. Surg Today 38(5):404–412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wilson J, Ramboer I, Suetens C: HELICS-SSI working group (2007) Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS). Inter-country comparison of rates of surgical site infection: opportunities and limitations. J Hosp Infect 65 Suppl 2:165–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML et al (1999) Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Am J Infect Control 27(2):97–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Muñoz P, Hortal J, Giannella M et al (2008) Nasal carriage of S. aureus increases the risk of surgical site infection after major heart surgery. J Hosp Infect 68(1):25–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kunitake H, Hodin R, Shellito PC et al (2008) Perioperative treatment with infliximab in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis is not associated with an increased rate of postoperative complications. J Gastrointest Surg 12(10):1730–1736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Melmed GY, Ippoliti AF, Papadakis KA et al (2006) Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at risk for vaccine-preventable illnesses. Am J Gastroenterol 101(8):1834–1840CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sands BE, Cuffari C, Katz J et al (2004) Guidelines for immunizations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10(5):677–692CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola Petrosillo
    • 1
  • Cecilia M. J. Drapeau
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseaseLazzaro Spallanzani HospitalRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations