Utility of Imaging Techniques

  • Andrea Di Cori
  • Giulio Zucchelli
  • Francesco Bandera


The clinical use of cardiac devices (CDs) has grown considerably over the past two decades, producing the subsequent increased need for lead removal [1], [2]. The major barrier to lead removal is fibrosis that progressively grows around the lead body and electrode tip, securing leads to the venous endothelium and myocardium. Freeing the lead from these binding sites safely is the goal behind the design of tools and techniques that have been developed for this purpose. In the past, open heart surgery became a useful but invasive option for lead extraction, allowing direct lead visualization and dissection. Standard surgical techniques through a midline sternotomy, lateral thoracotomy, or limited atriotomy were developed as solutions for lead removal. However, they remain an option of last resort given their invasiveness, longer patient recovery time, and a reported mortality rate of 0–12.5% [3], [4].


Inferior Vena Cava Right Ventricle Infective Endocarditis Pericardial Effusion Superior Vena Cava 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Di Cori
    • 1
  • Giulio Zucchelli
    • 1
  • Francesco Bandera
    • 1
  1. 1.2nd Cardiovascular Department AOUPSanta Chiara University HospitalPisaItaly

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