Problem-Solving in Lead Extraction

  • Maria Grazia Bongiorni
  • Ezio Soldati


Transvenous lead removal is a complex technique. Many conditions play a role in lead extraction procedures and may affect technique, approaches, and results. In each case, lead design, lead damage, and patient anatomy may be significantly different, regardless of the removal technique. The description of any technique for transvenous lead extraction is always theoretical, exemplifying the most common situation; it must be emphasized that it is impossible to analyze and elucidate all possible conditions present in clinical practice [1]–[3]. The operator must plan the extraction procedure, and during the actual procedure, tailor techniques and tools to the individual circumstances in order to succeed and avoid complications [4], [5]. The fact that each case will have different conditions increases the importance of the extractor’s experience. Nevertheless, the number of different factors affecting the procedure may outweigh the operator’s experience, thus demanding that the operator develop an individual solution for each case.


Coronary Sinus Superior Vena Cava Hard Turn Innominate Vein Venous Wall 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Grazia Bongiorni
    • 1
  • Ezio Soldati
    • 1
  1. 1.2nd Cardiovascular Department AOUPSanta Chiara University HospitalPisaItaly

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