Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Perspectives

  • G. F. Williams
  • P. R. Fulbrook
  • A. W. Alexandrov
  • W. Cañón Montañez
  • H. M. Salisu-Kabara
  • D. W. K. Chan


The essential characteristic traits of a professional were first explored by Flexner [1] and others in the early 1900s. Researchers attempted to refine the traits of the “true” professions of law, medicine, and the clergy, and began comparing other groups of workers to these professions [2, 3]. In 1969, Etzioni [4] labelled nursing a “semiprofession” concurrent with changes in conceptualization of the nature of professions by others [5, 6]. However, contemporary opinion is that nursing has since achieved full professional status in many countries [7]. Kimball’s comprehensive historical analysis identified that expertise, service, and associations were the three essences of a profession [8]. Nursing is now well recognized as a profession and intensive and critical care nursing is regarded as a subspecialty of the nursing profession.


Critical Care Position Statement World Federation Issue Ranking Critical Care Nursing 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. Williams
    • 1
  • P. R. Fulbrook
    • 2
  • A. W. Alexandrov
    • 3
  • W. Cañón Montañez
    • 4
  • H. M. Salisu-Kabara
    • 5
  • D. W. K. Chan
    • 6
  1. 1.World Federation of Critical Care Nurses, C/- Nursing AdministrationGold Coast HealthSouthportAustralia
  2. 2.The World of Critical Care NursingAustralian Catholic University LimitedVirginiaAustralia
  3. 3.UAB Comprehensive Stroke CenterThe University of Alabama at Birmingham University HospitalBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.Colombian Committee of Critical Care Nurses (CECC-ANEC), Nursing ProgramUniversity of SantanderBucaramangaColombia
  5. 5.Intensive Care Unit, Anaesthesiology DepartmentAminu Kano Teaching HospitalKanoNigeria
  6. 6.Intensive Care UnitPrince of Wales HospitalShatin, New TerritoriesHong Kong

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