Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with cirrhosis in the large majority of patients [1]. The tumor can present in nodular, multinodular, or diffuse forms. Clinically, the serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) titer is increased and the value correlates with the size of the tumor mass. Histologically, the tumor consists of a proliferation of cells variably resembling normal hepatocytes, according to the degree of differentiation. Diverse growth patterns are recognized, including trabecular, acinar, pseudoglandular or adenoid, and scirrhous [1]. Tumor cells in well-differentiated malignancies typically are usually made up of oxyphil-type cells but a significant proportion of tumors assume a clear-cell morphology. The fibrolamellar and sclerosing variants of HCC are two important tumor entities, both occurring in young age groups and in the non-cirrhotic liver. The latter variant is often associated clinically with hypercalcemia [1].


Granu Losa Cell Tumor 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgio Gherardi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Anatomic Pathology and CytopathologyFatebenefratelli HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Postgraduate School of Anatomic PathologyUniversity of MilanItaly

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