Lymph Nodes: Diagnosis of Malignant Lymphoma

  • Giorgio Gherardi


Fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a convenient and reliable first-line diagnostic procedure for the investigation of superficial and deep seated lymphadenopathies. Its application can vary according to the clinical context, the age of the patient, and the anatomic site of the lesion [1, 2, 3]. Morphological assessment of the cellular sample serves as the basis for identifying several inflammatory conditions of the lymph nodes, as well as most highgrade lymphoid malignancies and non-lymphoid metastatic tumors, but it has significant limitations in the study of low-grade lymphomas as it does not allow their differentiation from several reactive conditions [4, 5, 6, 7]. However, this limitation can be overcome by the use of ancillary laboratory techniques in FNB samples, as these often reveal important immunophenotypic and biomolecular information that assists in obtaining a definitive diagnosis. Finally, a tissue incisional biopsy, using cutting needles, can be performed in parallel with FNB sampling of the lymph node. This approach may add relevant morphological data to the cytological evaluation as well as provide a significant amount of cellular sample for ancillary techniques.


Hese Cell Juvenile Xant Hogranuloma Ymph Node 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgio Gherardi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Anatomic Pathology and CytopathologyFatebenefratelli HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Postgraduate School of Anatomic PathologyUniversity of MilanItaly

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