Advertisement

Neonatology pp 735-747 | Cite as

Hematology and Immunology: Overview

  • Robert D. Christensen

Abstract

“Normal ranges” for hematologic values of neonates are generally not available. This is because blood is not drawn on healthy normal neonates to establish such ranges, as is done with the consent of healthy adult volunteers. Instead, neonatal hematology generally utilizes “reference ranges”. These ranges consist of 5th to 95th percentile values compiled from laboratory tests that were performed on neonates thought to have minimal pathology relevant to the laboratory test, or with pathology unlikely to significantly affect the test results. The premise on which the reference range concept is based is that these values approximate normal ranges, although they were admittedly obtained for a clinical reason and not from healthy volunteers.

Keywords

Preterm Infant Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Mean Platelet Volume Reticulocyte Count Hereditary Spherocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (1978) Recommendations for reference method for haemoglobinometry in human blood. J Clin Pathol 31: 139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jopling J, Henry E, Wiedmeier SE, Christensen RD (2009) Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period. Pediatrics 123: e333–e377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wintrobe MM (1929) A simple and accurate hematocrit. J Lab Clin Med 15: 287–289Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Waugh TF, Merchant FT, Maugham GB (1939) Blood studies on newborn; determination of hemoglobin, volume of packed red cells, reticulocytes and fragility of erythrocytes over 9 day period. Am J Med Sci 198: 646–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kjeldsberg CR (2009) Principles of hematologic examination. In: Greer JP, Foerster J, Rodgers GM et al (eds) Wintrobe’s clinical hematology. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gairdner D, Marks J, Bosco JD (1952) Blood formation in infancy: the normal bone marrow. Arch Dis Child 27: 128–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christensen RD, Jopling J, Henry E et al (2008) The erythrocyte indices of neonates, defined using data from over 12,000 patients in a multihospital healthcare system. J Perinatol 28: 24–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scott-Emuakpor AB, Okolo M, Omene JA, Ukpe SI (1985) Normal hematological values of the African neonate. Blut 51: 11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Michaels LA, Cohen AR, Zhao H et al (1997) Screening for hereditary spherocytosis by use of automated erythrocyte indexes. J Pediatr 130: 957–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dessypris EN (2009) Erythropoiesis. In: Greer JP, Foerster J, Rodgers GM et al (eds) Wintrobe’s clinical hematology. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Killman SA (1964) On the size of normal human reticulocytes. Acta Med Scand 176: 529–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Warwood TL, Ohls RK, Lambert DK et al (2006) Urinary excretion of darbepoetin after intravenous vs subcutaneous administration to preterm neonates. J Perinatol 26: 636–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wegelius R (1948) On changes in peripheral blood picture of newborn infant immediately after birth. Acta Paediatr 35: 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    HumbertJR, Abelson H, Hathaway WE et al (1969) Polycythemia in small for gestational age infants. J Pediatr 75: 812–819Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zipursky A (1977) Erythrocyte morphology in newborn infants: a new look. Pediatr Res 11: 483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pearson EA, McIntosh S, Rooks Y et al (1978) Interference phase microscopic enumeration of pitted RBC andsplenic hypofunction in sickle cell anemia. Pediatr Res 12: 471Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vahlquist B (1941) Das Serumeisen. Eine padiatrischklinische und experimentelle studie. Acta Paediatric 28: 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oettinger L Jr, Mills WE (1949) Simultaneous capillary and venous hemoglobin determinations in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 35: 362–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mollision PL (1951) Blood transfusion in clinical medicine, 3rd edn. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oh W, Lind J (1966) Venous and capillary hematocrit in newborn infants and placental transfusion. Acta Paediatr Scand 55: 38–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moe PJ (1967) Umbilical cord blood and capillary blood in the evaluation of anemia in erythroblastosis fetalis. Acta Paediatr Scand 56: 391–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Linderkamp O, Versmold HT, Strohhacker I et al (1977) Capillaryvenous hematocrit differences in newborn infants. I. Relationship to blood volume, peripheral blood flow and acid-base parameters. Eur J Pediatr 127: 9–14Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Turner CW, Luzins J, Hutcheson C (1992) A modified harvest technique for cord blood hematopoietic stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 10: 89–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yao AC, Lind J (1974) Placental transfusion. Am J Dis Child 127: 128–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yao AC, Lind J (1974) Blood flow in the umbilical vessels during the third stage of labor. Biol Neonate 25: 186–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barnett HL, Einhorn AH (1972) Pediatrics, 15th edn. Appleton- Century-Crofts, New York, p 597Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xanthou M (1970) Leukocyte blood picture in healthy full term and premature babies during the neonatal period. Arch Dis Child 45: 242–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zipursky A, Palko J, Milner R et al (1976) The hematology of bacterial infections in premature infants. Pediatrics 57: 839–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Akenzua GI, Hui IT, Milner R et al (1974) Neutrophil and band counts in the diagnosis of neonatal infection. Pediatrics 54: 38–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Manroe BL, Weinberg AG, Rosenfeld CR et al (1979) The neonatal blood count in health and disease. I. Reference values for neutrophilic cells. J Pediatr 95: 89–98Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Christensen RD, Rothstein G (1979) Pitfalls in the interpretation of leukocytes counts of newborn infants. Am J Clin Pathol 72: 608–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chervenick PA, Boggs DR, Marsh JC et al (1968) Quantitative studies of blood and bone marrow neutrophils in normal mice. Am J Physiol 215: 353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mouzinho A, Rosenfeld CR, Sanchez PJ, Risser R (1994) Revised reference ranges for circulating neutrophils in very-low-birthweight neonates. Pediatrics 94: 76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maynard EC, Reed C, Kircher T (1993) Neutrophil counts in newborn infants at high altitude. J Pediatr 122: 990–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schmutz N, Henry E, Jopling J, Christensen RD (2008) Expected ranges for blood neutrophil concentrations of neonates: the Manroe and Mouzinho charts revisited. J Perinatol 28: 275–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carballo C, Foucar K, Swanson P et al (1991) Effect of high altitude on neutrophil counts in newborn infants. J Pediatr 119: 464–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Coulombel L, Dehan M, Tehernia G et al (1979) The number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in relation to gestational age in the newborn. Acta Paediatr Scand 68: 709–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lloyd BW, Oto A (1982) Normal values for mature and immature neutrophils in very preterm babies. Arch Dis Child 57: 233–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Calhoun DA, Sullivan SE, Lunøe M et al (2000) Granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-5 concentrations in premature neonates with eosinophilia. J Perinatol 20: 166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sullivan SE, Calhoun DA (2000) Eosinophilia in the neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Perinatol 27: 603–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Medoff HS, Barbero GJ (1950) Total blood eosinophil counts in the newborn period. Pediatrics 6: 737–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xanthou M (1972) Leucocyte blood picture in ill newborn babies. Arch Dis Child 47: 741–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Christensen RD, Jensen J, Maheshwari A, Henry E (2010) Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63 000 records in a multihospital health-care system. J Perinatol 30: 540–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Burell JM (1952) A comparative study of the circulating eosinophil levels in babies. Arch Dis Child 27: 337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bass DA (1975) Behavior of eosinophil leukocytes in acute inflammation. II. Eosinophil dynamics during acute inflammation. J Clin Invest 56: 870–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gibson JG Jr, Vaucher Y, Corrigan JJ (1979) Eosinophilia in premature infants: relationship to weight gain. J Pediatr 95: 99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Portuguez-Molavasi A, Cote-Boileau T, Aranda JV (1980) Eosinophilia in the newborn, possible role in adverse drug reactions. Pediatr Res 14: 537Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Craver RD (1996) The cytology of cerebrospinal fluid associated with neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 16: 713–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thurlbeck SM, McIntosh N (1987) Preterm blood counts vary with sampling site. Arch Dis Child 62: 74–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rogers GM (2009) In: Greer JP, Foerster J, Rodgers GM et al (eds) Wintrobe’s clinical hematology. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wiedmeier SE, Henry E, Sola-Visner MC, Christensen RD (2009) Platelet reference ranges for neonates, defined using data from over 47,000 patients in a multihospital healthcare system. J Perinatol 29: 130–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peterec SM, Brennan SA, Tinder EM et al (1996) Reticulated platelet values in normal and thrombocytopenic neonates. J Pediatr 9: 269–274Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Joseph MA, Adams D, Maragos J, Saving KL (1966) Flow cytometry of neonatal platelet RNA. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 18: 277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Saigo K, Sakota Y, Masuda Y et al (2008) Automatic detection of immature platelets for decision making regarding platelet transfusion indications for pediatric patients. Transfus Apher Sci 38: 127–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sola MC, Rimsza LM, Christensen RD (1999) A bone marrow biopsy technique suitable for use in neonates. Br J Haematol 107: 458–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Christensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Women and Newborns ProgramIntermountain HealthcareOgdenUSA

Personalised recommendations