Neonatology pp 664-674 | Cite as

Orofacial Malformations

  • Roberto Brusati
  • Giacomo Colletti


During the 4th week of intrauterine life, a central depression forms at the front of the cephalic portion of the embryo, i.e., the primary stomodeum, around which are protuberances. The fronto-nasal protuberance is at the top (the future front part of the brain), the mandibular part of the 1st branchial arch is below, and the maxillary protuberances (also derived from 1st branchial arch) are on the sides. Two ectodermal thickenings (olfactory pits) form on the lower surface of the nasal-frontal protuberance: external and internal nasal processes. Meanwhile the maxillary processes grow forward and medially, meeting and fusing with the nasal processes and forming the upper lip and nostrils. Simultaneously within the floor of the primitive stomodeum, the tongue forms from the merging of five processes. The palatal processes form on the sides and a median laminar structure on the roof will become the septum.


Dermoid Cyst Cleave Palate Choanal Atresia Facial Cleft Orbital Frame 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Brusati
    • 1
  • Giacomo Colletti
  1. 1.Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, San Paolo HospitalUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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