Neonatology pp 550-568 | Cite as

Cardiovascular Physiology, Pathology, and Clinical Investigation

  • Luciane Piazza
  • Angelo Micheletti
  • Diana Negura
  • Carmelo Arcidiacono
  • Antonio Saracino
  • Mario Carminati


Congenital heart defects (CHD) are a heterogeneous entity, representing the most common malformations in the fetal and neonatal period. The incidence of moderate to severe structural CHD that will require expert cardiologic care is 2.5 to 3 per 1000 live births. Moderately severe forms of CHD probably account for another 3 per 1000 live births. Specialised cardiologic care is not needed for most minor forms of CHD, such as tiny ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial septal defect (ASD) [1]. Most infants with congenital heart disease are identified by the end of neonatal period.


Right Ventricle Patent Ductus Arteriosus Atrial Septal Defect Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Ventricular Septal Defect 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciane Piazza
  • Angelo Micheletti
  • Diana Negura
  • Carmelo Arcidiacono
  • Antonio Saracino
  • Mario Carminati
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Adult Congenital Heart DiseaseIRCCS Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato MilaneseItaly

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