Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonates
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of cardiopulmonary bypass, modified such that patients can be supported for a prolonged period of time, even weeks. ECMO is not a treatment, but rather supports the patient until their lung and/or cardiac function improves. ECMO was developed for use in adult patients, but abandoned when initial trials failed to demonstrate that it improved survival advantage over that achieved by conventional respiratory support . Subsequently, Bartlett and colleagues demonstrated the potential of ECMO for neonates with severe respiratory failure. Now, many thousands of neonates have been recorded on the Extracorporeal Life Support Organisation (ELSO) database as having received ECMO. In this chapter, the techniques used and the management of a neonate on ECMO are described. In addition, the indications for ECMO and the results achieved are discussed.
KeywordsOxygenation Index Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Respiratory Support Conventional Ventilation Severe Respiratory Failure
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