Neonatology pp 311-319 | Cite as

Parenteral Nutrition

  • Jacques Rigo
  • Thibault Senterre


Modern perinatal medicine has resulted in dramatic decrease of mortality in premature infants, especially very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants. With the major advances in life-support measures, nutrition has become one the most debated issues in the care of low-birth-weight infants. In this regard, several reports have shown the major effect of quantitative and qualitative nutrition during the first period of life on early and late outcome.


Preterm Infant Parenteral Nutrition Lipid Emulsion Transitional Period Medium Chain Triglyceride 


  1. 1.
    Ehrenkranz RA, Younes N, Lemons J A et al (1999) Longitudinal growth of hospitalized very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 104: 280–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Embleton NE, Pang N, Cooke RJ (2001) Postnatal malnutrition and growth retardation: an inevitable consequence of current recommendations in preterm infants? Pediatrics 107: 270–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rigo J, De Curtis M, Pieltain C (2002) Nutritional assessment and body composition of preterm infants. Semin Neonatol 6: 383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Curtis M, Rigo J (2004) Extrauterine growth restriction in very- low-birthweight infants. Acta Paediatr 93: 1563–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson DC, Cairns P, Halliday Hl et al (1997) Randomised con-trolled trial of an aggressive nutritional regimen in sick very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child 77: 4F–11FCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thureen PJ, Melara D, Fennessey V et al (2003) Effect of low versus high intravenous amino acid intake on very low birth wight infants in the early neonatal period, Pediatr Res 53: 24–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ziegler EE, Thureen PJ, Carlson SJ (2002) Aggressive nutrition of the very low birthweight infant. Clin Perinatol 29: 225–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simmer K (2007) Aggressive nutrition for preterm infants. Benefits and risks. Early Human Development 83: 631–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsang RC, Uauy R, Koletzko B, Zlotkin SH (eds) (2005) Nutrition of the preterm infant: Scientific basis and practice, 2nd edn. Digital educational Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio, pp 415–418Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP et al (2010) Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50: 85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rigo J, De Curtis M (2004) Parenteral nutrition in premature in-fants. In: Guandalini S (ed) Texbook of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Taylor and Francis, London, New York, pp 619–638Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koletzko B, Goulet O, Hunt J et al (2005) Guidelines on Paediatric Parenteral Nutrition of the European Society Pediatric Gastroen- terology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN), Supported by the European Society of Paediatric Research (ESPR). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 41 (Suppl2): S1–S87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ben XM (2008) Nutritional management of newborn infants: practical guidelines. World J Gastroenterol 28: 6133–6139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fusch C, Bauer K, Böhles HJ et al (2009) Neonatology/Paediatrics. Guidelines on parenteral nutrition, Chapter 13. Ger Med Sci 7:Doc15Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Senterre T, Rigo J (2011) Optimizing early nutritional support based on recent recommendations in VLBW infants allows abolishing postnatal growth restriction. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Donovan R, Puppala B, Angst D, Coyle BW (2006) Outcomes of early nutrition support in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Nutr Clin Pract 21: 395–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stephens BE, Walden RV, Gargus RA et al (2009) First-week protein and energy intakes are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 123: 1337–1343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin CR, Brown YF, Ehrenkranz RA et al (2009) Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely premature infants. Pediatrics 124: 649–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kalhoff H, Diekmann L, Hettrich B et al (1997) Modified cow’s milk formula with reduced renal acid load preventing incipient late metabolic acidosis in premature infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 25: 46–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rigo J (2005) Protein, amino acid and other nitrogen compounds In: Tsang RC, Uauy R, Koletzko B, Zlotkin SH (eds) Nutrition of the preterm infant: Scientific basis and practice, 2nd edn. Digital educational Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio, pp 45–80Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    De Curtis M, Senterre J, Rigo J (1986) Estimated and measured energy content of infant formulas. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 5: 746–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borum PR (2009) Carnitine in parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 137 (Suppl 5): S129–S134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cairns PA, Stalker DJ (2000) Carnitine supplementation of par- enterally fed neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD000950Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van Goudoever JB, Sulkers EJ, Timmermans M et al (1994) Amino acid solutions for premature infants during the first week of life: The role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-tyrosine. JPEN 18: 404–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tubman TR, Thompson SW, McGuire W (2008) Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 23:CD001457Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hardy G, Puzovic M (2009) Formulation, stability and administration of parenteral nutrition with new lipid emulsions. Nutr Clin Pract 24: 616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Diamond IR, Pencharz PB, Wales PW (2009) What is the current role for parenteral lipid emulsions containing omega-3 fatty acids in infants with short bowel syndrome? Minerva Pediatr 61: 263–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Waitzberg DL, Torrinhas RS, Jacintho TM (2006) New parenteral lipid emulsions for clinical use. JPEN 30: 351–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Poole RL, Hintz SR, Mackenzie NI, Kerner JA Jr (2008) Aluminum exposure from pediatric parenteral nutrition: meeting the new FDA regulation. JPEN 32: 242–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bohrer D, Oliveira SM, Garcia SC et al (2010) Aluminum Loading in Preterm Neonates Revisited. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 51: 237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Poole RL, Kerner JA (1992) Practical steps in prescribing intra-venous feeding. In: Yu VYH, MacMahon RA (eds) Intravenous feeding of the neonate. Edward Arnold, London, pp 259–264Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lapillonne A, Fellous L, Mokthari M, Kermorvant-Duchemin E (2009) Parenteral nutrition objectives for very low birth weight infants: results of a national survey. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48: 618–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Senterre T, Rigo J (2011) Reduction of postnatal cumulative nutritional deficit and improvement of growth in extremely preterm infants. Acta Paediatr [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rigo J, Marlowe ML, Bonnot D (2011) Practical handling, ease of use, safety, and efficacy of a new pediatric triple-chamber bag for parenteral nutrition in preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Rigo
    • 1
  • Thibault Senterre
  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyUniversity of Liège, CHR de la Citadelle LiègeBelgium

Personalised recommendations