Neonatology pp 201-205 | Cite as

Neonatal Pain: Neurophysiology, Recognition and Prevention

  • Carlo Bellieni


To address the question of pain in newborns, one must use indirect evidence from a variety of sources, and then make an informed guess. These sources include studies of behavior, anatomy and physiology. Evidence indicates that the experience of pain begins in the second trimester, well before the third and last trimester of human gestation [1] and that fetuses of that age can perceive pain [2].


Cortical Plate Peripheral Receptor Heel Prick Neonatal Pain Informed Guess 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Bellieni
    • 1
  1. 1.Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

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