Neonatology pp 130-135 | Cite as

Early Markers of Poor Outcome

  • Fabrizio Ferrari
  • Licia Lugli
  • Isotta Guidotti
  • Marisa Pugliese


A major issue for neonatologists and developmental neurologists is the identification of those infants who are at risk of subsequent neurodevelopment disability and who may benefit from neurological follow-up and early intervention strategies.


Cerebral Palsy Auditory Brainstem Response Gross Motor Function Classification System Spastic Diplegia Basal Ganglion Lesion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Woodward LJ, Anderson PJ, Austin NC et al (2006) Neonatal MRI to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 355:685–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marlow N, Wolke D, Bracewell MA et al (2005) Neurologic and developmental disability at six years of age after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 352:9–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosenbaum P, Dan B, Leviton A et al (2005) The definition of cerebral palsy. In: Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P et al (eds) Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 47:571–576Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Walter S et al (1997) Development and validation of a gross motor function classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 39:214–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dubowitz L, Mercuri E, Dubowitz V (1998) An optimality score for the neurologic examination of the term newborn. J Pediatr 133:406–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Romeo DM, Cioni M, Scoto M et al (2009) Prognostic value of a scorable neurological examination from 3 to 12 months post-term age in very preterm infants: a longitudinal study. Early Hum Dev 85:405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ricci D, Guzzetta A, Cowan F et al (2006) Sequential neurological examinations in infants with neonatal encephalopathy and low apgar scores: relationship with brain MRI. Neuropediatrics 37:148–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prechtl HF, Einspieler C, Cioni G et al (1997) An early marker for neurological deficits after perinatal brain lesions. Lancet 349:1361–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferrari F, Cioni G, Einspieler C et al (2002) Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156:460–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guzzetta A, Mercuri E, Rapisardi G et al (2003) General movements detect early signs of hemiplegia in term infants with neonatal cerebral infarction. Neuropediatrics 34:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Einspieler C, Cioni G, Paolicelli PB et al (2002) The early markers for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy are different from those for spastic cerebral palsy. Neuropediatrics 33:73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rutherford MA, Pennock JM, Counsell SJ et al (1998) Abnormal magnetic resonance signal in the internal capsule predicts poor neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics 102:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mercuri E, Atkinson J, Braddick O et al (1997) Basal ganglia damage and impaired visual function in the newborn infant. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 77:F111–F114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ricci D, Anker S, Cowan F et al (2006) Thalamic atrophy in infants with PVL and cerebral visual impairment. Early Hum Dev 82:591–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Santiago-Rodriguez E, Harmony T, Bernardino M et al (2005) Auditory steady-state responses in infants with perinatal brain injury. Pediatr Neurol 32:236–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrizio Ferrari
    • 1
  • Licia Lugli
  • Isotta Guidotti
  • Marisa Pugliese
  1. 1.Neonatal Intensive Care UnitUniversity Hospital of ModenaModenaItaly

Personalised recommendations