Neonatology pp 1208-1215 | Cite as

The Timing of Neonatal Brain Damage

  • Giuseppe Buonocore
  • Serafina Perrone


Early abnormalities of brain development and underlying genetic factors can affect brain susceptibility to the injury [1, 2, 3]. Some infants may inherit a predisposition to have significant injury in the event of a normally sublethal insult [4]. These newly identified risk factors for brain damage in different periods make the timing of lesions important for exact diagnosis and prevention. Incidence of neonatal encephalopathy ranges from about 2.0 to 6.0 per 1000 live births [5, 6, 7]. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy ranges from about 1.0 to 8.0 per 1000 live births. Epidemiological data shows that 30% of cases of neonatal encepalophaty in developed populations and 60% in developing populations have some evidence of intrapartum hypoxic-ischemia [8].


Cerebral Palsy Brain Damage Fetal Growth Restriction Hypoxic Ischemia Encephalopathy Advanced Oxidative Protein Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Buonocore
    • 1
  • Serafina Perrone
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, Division of NeonatologyUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

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