Neonatology pp 82-88 | Cite as

Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Neonatal Aspects

  • Enrico Bertino
  • Luciana Occhi
  • Claudio Fabris


Although the terms small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restriction are often used as synonyms, they reflect two different concepts.


Intrauterine Growth Restriction Hypoxic Ischemia Intrauterine Malnutrition Umbilical Artery Doppler Velocimetry 


  1. 1.
    Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M (2007) Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vrachnis N, Botsis D, Iliodromiti Z (2006). The fetus that is small for gestational age. Ann NY Acad Sci 1092:304–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cameron N (2004) Measuring techniques and instruments. In: Nicoletti I, Benso L, Gilli G (eds) Physiological and pathological auxology. Edizioni Centro Studi Auxologici, Firenze pp 117–159Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2007) Standard terminology for reporting of reproductive health statistics in the United States. Guideline for Prenatal CareGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clayton PE, Cianfarani S, Czernichow P et al (2007) Management of the child born small for gestational age through to adulthood: a consensus statement of the International Societies of Pediatric Endocrinology and the Growth Hormone Research Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:804–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singer DB, Sung CJ, Wigglesworth JS (1991) Fetal growth and maturation with standards for body and organ development. In Wigglesworth JS, Singer DB (eds) Textbook of fetal and perinatal pathology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, pp 11–47Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barker DJ, Hanson MA (2004) Altered regional blood flow in the fetus: the origins of cardiovascular disease? Acta Paediatr 93:1559–1560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bertino E, Di Battista E, Bossi A et al (1996) Fetal growth velocity: kinetic, clinical, and biological aspects. Arch Dis Childhood 74:F10–15Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Todros T, Plazzotta C, Pastorin L (1996) Body proportionality of the small-for-date fetus: is it related to aetiological factors? Early Hum Dev 45:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rasmussen S, Kiserud T, Albrechtsen S (2006) Foetal size and body proportion at 17–19 weeks of gestation and neonatal size, proportion, and outcome. Early Hum Dev 82:683–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Casey PH (2008). Growth of Low Birth Weight Preterm Children. Sem Perinatol 32:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pallotto EK, Kilbride HW (2006) Perinatal outcome and later implications of intrauterine growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol 49:257–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vashevnik S, Walker S, Permezel M (2007) Stillbirths and neonatal deaths in appropriate, small and large birthweight for gestational age fetuses. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 47:302–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pulver LS, Guest-Warnick G, Stoddard GJ et al (2009) Weight for gestational age affects the mortality of late preterm infants. Pediatrics 123:e1072–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shand AW, Hornbuckle J, Nathan E et al (2009) Small for gestational age preterm infants and relationship of abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow to perinatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 49:52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosenberg A (2008) The IUGR Newborn. Semin Perinatol 32:219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bartels DB, Schwab F, Geffers C et al (2007) Nosocomial infection in small for gestational age newborns with birth weight <1500 g: a multicentre analysis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F449–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halliday HL (2009) Neonatal management and long-term sequelae. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 23:871–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitsiakos G, Papaioannou G, Papadakis E et al (2009) Haemostatic profile of full-term, healthy, small for gestational age neonates. Thromb Res 124:288–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu V, Upadhyay A (2004) Neonatal management of the growth-restricted infant. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 9:403–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pallotto EK, Woelnerhanssen B, Putt M et al (2004) Incidence and risk factors for prolonged hypoglycemia in small for gestational age infants. Abstract. Society for Pediatric and Perinatal EpidemiologyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarkar S, Rosenkrantz TS (2008) Neonatal polycythemia and hyperviscosity. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 13:248–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McIntire DD, Bloom SL, Casey BM et al (1999) Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. N Engl J Med 340:1234–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bernstein IM, Horbar JD, Badger GJ et al (2000) Morbidity and mortality among very-low-birth-weight neonates with intrauterine growth restriction. The Vermont Oxford Network. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182:198–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lal MK, Manktelow BN, Draper ES, Field DJ (2003) Chronic lung disease of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation: a population-based study. Pediatrics 111:483–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Regev RH, Lusky A, Dolfin T et al (2003) Excess mortality and morbidity among small-for-gestational-age premature infants: a population-based study. J Pediatr 143:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aucott SW, Donohue PK, Northington FJ (2004) Increased morbidity in severe early intrauterine growth restriction. J Perinatol 24:435–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kinsella JP, Greenough A, Abman SH (2006) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lancet 367:1421–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dhaliwal CA, Fleck BW, Wright E et al (2009) Retinopathy of premature in small-for gestational age infants compared with those of appropriate size for gestational age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 94:F193–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McMillen I, Adams M, Ross J et al (2001) Fetal growth restriction: adaptation and consequences. Reproduction 122:195–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith LE (2005) IGF-1 and retinopathy of prematurity in the preterm infant. Biol Neonate 88:237–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dorling J, Kempley S, Leaf A (2005) Feeding growth restricted preterm infants with abnormal antenatal Doppler results. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 90:F359–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Murdoch EM, Sinha AK, Shanmugalingam ST et al (2006) Doppler flow velocimetry in the superior mesenteric artery on the first day of life in preterm infants and the risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatrics 118:1999–2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Simon D, Léger J, Carel JC (2008) Optimal use of growth hormone therapy for maximizing adult height in children born small for gestational age. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 22:525–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Saenger P, Czernichow P, Hughes I, Reiter EO (2007) Small for gestational age: short stature and beyond. Endocr Rev 28:219–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wit JM, Finken MJ, Rijken M, de Zegher F (2006) Preterm growth restraint: a paradigm that unifies intrauterine growth retardation and preterm extrauterine growth retardation and has implications for the small-for-gestational-age indication in growth hormone therapy. Pediatrics 117:e793–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bertino E, Coscia A, Boni L et al (2009) Weight growth velocity of very low birth weight infants: role of gender, gestational age and major morbidities. Early Hum Dev 85:339–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hofman PL, Regan F, Cutfield WS (2006) Prematurity-another example of perinatal metabolic programming? Horm Res 66:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lundgren EM, Tuvemo T (2008) Effects of being born small for gestational age on long-term intellectual performance. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 22:477–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Morley R, Fewtrell MS, Abbott RA et al (2004) Neurodevelopment in children born small for gestational age: a randomized trial of nutrient-enriched versus standard formula and comparison with a reference breastfed group. Pediatrics 113:515–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Agostoni C (2005) Small-for-gestational-age infants need dietary quality more than quantity for their development: the role of human milk. Acta Paediatr 94:827–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Varda NM, Gregoric A (2009) Metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population: a short overview. Pediatric Reviews 1:e1Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barker DJ, Osmond C, Forsén TJ, Kajantie E et al (2005) Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. N Engl J Med 353:1802–1809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Maiorana A, Del Bianco C, Cianfarani S (2007) Adipose tissue: a metabolic regulator. Potential implications for the metabolic outcome of subjects born small for gestational age (SGA). Rev Diabet Stud 4:134–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nobili V, Alisi A, Panera N, Agostoni C (2008) Low birth weight and catch-up-growth associated with metabolic syndrome: a ten year systematic review. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 6:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reinehr T, Kleber M, Toschke AM (2009) Small for gestational age status is associated with metabolic syndrome in overweight children. Eur J Endocrinol 160:579–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yeung MY (2006) Postnatal growth, neurodevelopment and altered adiposity after preterm birth—from a clinical nutrition perspective. Acta Paediatr 95:909–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Koleganova N, Piecha G, Ritz E (2009) Prenatal causes of kidney disease. Blood Purif 27:48–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hernández MI, Mericq V (2008) Impact of being born small for gestational age on onset and progression of puberty. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 22:463–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Main KM, Jensen RB, Asklund C et al (2006) Low birth weight and male reproductive function. Horm Res 65:116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico Bertino
    • 1
  • Luciana Occhi
  • Claudio Fabris
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric and Adolescence Science Division of NeonatologyUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations