Fetal infections: Rubella, HIV, HCV, HBV, and Human Parvovirus B19
Congenital rubella (CR) infection leads to damage in over 80% of fetuses during the first trimester of pregnancy, in 25–34% of cases in the second trimester, while no malformations occur in the third trimester.
CR syndrome (CRS) is characterized by the combination of cardiac, ocular, and hearing defects, although any organ may be affected leading to long-term disabilities.
To prevent CRS it is essential to verify before or during pregnancy, that all women have natural or vaccine-induced immunity to the rubella virus.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Rubella Virus Congenital Rubella Syndrome Vertical Transmission Rate
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