Neonatology pp 880-892 | Cite as

Fetal infections: Rubella, HIV, HCV, HBV, and Human Parvovirus B19

  • Pier-Angelo Tovo
  • Stefania Bezzio
  • Clara Gabiano


Rubella: Salient Points
  • Congenital rubella (CR) infection leads to damage in over 80% of fetuses during the first trimester of pregnancy, in 25–34% of cases in the second trimester, while no malformations occur in the third trimester.

  • CR syndrome (CRS) is characterized by the combination of cardiac, ocular, and hearing defects, although any organ may be affected leading to long-term disabilities.

  • To prevent CRS it is essential to verify before or during pregnancy, that all women have natural or vaccine-induced immunity to the rubella virus.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Rubella Virus Congenital Rubella Syndrome Vertical Transmission Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pier-Angelo Tovo
    • 1
  • Stefania Bezzio
  • Clara Gabiano
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

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