Neonatology pp 77-81 | Cite as

Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Obstetric Aspects

  • Anna Maria Marconi
  • Frederick C. Battaglia


Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is not a specific condition, but represents the epiphenomenon of a variety of conditions. Traditionally, it is etiologically associated with maternal, fetal and placental disorders (Table 11.1). However, it is useful to make some distinctions within the group of IUGR pregnancies.


Pulsatility Index Intrauterine Growth Restriction Fetal Hypoxia IUGR Fetus IUGR Pregnancy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Battaglia FC, Lubchenco LO (1967) A practical classification of newborn infants by weight and gestational age. J Pediatr 71:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Todros T, Ferrazzi E, Groli C et al (1987) Fitting growth curves to head and abdomen measurements of the fetus: a multicentric study. J Clin Ultrasound 15:95–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hadlock FP, Harrist RB, Carpenter RJ et al (1984) Sonographic estimation of fetal weight. Radiology 150:535–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gardosi J (2004) Customized fetal growth standards: rationale and clinical application. Semin Perinatol 28:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marconi AM, Ronzoni S, Bozzetti P et al (2008) Comparison of fetal and neonatal growth curves in detecting growth restriction. Obstet Gynecol 112:1227–1234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tucker J, McGuire W (2004) Epidemiology of preterm birth. BMJ 329:675–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C, et al (2008) Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet 371:340–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baschat AA, Hecher K (2004) Fetal growth restriction due to placental disease. Semin Perinatol 28:67–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tyson RW, Staat BC (2008) The intrauterine growth restricted fetus and placenta evaluation. Semin Perinatol 32:166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Redline RW (2008) Placental Pathology: A systematic approach with clinical correlations. Placenta 29 (suppl A):S86–S91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Redman CW, Sargent IL (2005) Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia. Science 308:1592–1594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haeri S, Khoury J, Kovilam O et al (2008) The association of intrauterine growth abnormalities in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by vasculopathy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:278.e1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pardi G, Cetin I, Marconi AM et al (1993) Diagnostic value of blood sampling in fetuses with growth retardation. N Engl J Med 328:692–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ferrazzi E, Bellotti M, Galan HL et al (2001) Doppler investigation in intrauterine growth restriction-from qualitative indices to flow measurements. A review of the experience of a collaborative group. Ann NY Acad Sci 943:316–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferrazzi E, Bozzo M, Rigano S et al (2002) Temporal sequence of abnormal Doppler changes in the peripheral and central circulatory systems of the severely growth-restricted fetus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 19:140–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harman CR, Baschat AA (2003) Comprehensive assessment of fetal wellbeing: which Doppler tests should be performed? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 15:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marconi AM, Paolini C, Buscaglia M et al (1996) The impact of gestational age and fetal growth on the maternal-fetal glucose concentration difference. Obstet Gynecol 87:937–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bellotti M, Pennati G, De Gasperi C et al (2004) Simultaneous measurements of umbilical venous, fetal hepatic, and ductus venosus blood flow in growth-restricted human fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:1347–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Figueras F, Fernández S, Hernández-Andrade E, Gratacós E (2008) Umbilical venous blood flow measurement: accuracy and reproducibility. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:587–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ferrazzi E, Rigano S, Bozzo M et al (2000) Umbilical vein blood flow in growth-restricted fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 16:432–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Murayama K, Nagasaka H, Tate K et al (2006) Significant correlations between the flow volume of patent ductus venosus and early neonatal liver function: possible involvement of patent ductus venosus in postnatal liver function. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 91:F175–F179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kondo M, Itoh S, Kunikata T et al (2001) Time of closure of ductus venosus in term and preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 85:F57–F59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loberant N, Barak M, Gaitini D et al (1992) Closure of the ductus venosus in neonates: findings on real-time gray-scale, color-flow Doppler, and duplex Doppler sonograpy. Am J Roentgenol 159:1083–1085Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown LD, Cavalli C, Harwood JF et al (2008) Plasma concentrations of carbohydrates and sugar alcohols in term newborns after milk feeding. Pediatr Res 64:189–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hendrix N, Berghella V (2008) Non-placental causes of intrauterine growth restriction. Semin Perinatol 32:161–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Maria Marconi
  • Frederick C. Battaglia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of ColoradoDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations