Advertisement

Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography

  • Eugene McNally
  • Stefano Bianchi

Abstract

Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) applications continue to show considerable expansion mainly because of technical improvements (development of high-frequency broadband transducers, refined focusing, and sensitive colour and power Doppler technology) and the growing interest of musculoskeletal radiologists. Its low cost, non-invasivity, and possibility to perform the examination directly, e.g., in sport fields, are additional qualities appreciated by the patients. Up to-date, high-level equipment allows the detection of normal anatomic details and identification of a variety of pathologic conditions [1, 2, 3]. The possibility to perform a dynamic examination is a specific advantage of US compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). The introduction of extended-field-of-view technology has allowed the realization of images of larger segments and has facilitated their interpretation by the referring physician. The main disadvantages of US are its limited assessment of internal structures of the joints, bones, and bone marrow.

Keywords

Rotator Cuff Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Giant Cell Tumor Tendon Sheath Biceps Tendon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    McNally E (2004) Practical Musculoskeletal Ultrasound. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C (2007) Ultrasound of the musculoskeletal system. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jacobson JA, van Holsbeeck MT (1998) Musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Orth Clin North Am 29:135–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bianchi S, Abdelwahab IF, Mazzola CG et al (1995) Sonographic examination of muscle herniation. J Ultrasound Med 14:357–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beggs I (2003) Sonography of muscle hernias. AJR Am J Roentgenol 18:395–399Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garrett WE Jr (1996) Muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med 24:S2–S8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Waser NP et al (2002) Central aponeurosis tears of the rectus femoris: sonographic findings. Skeletal Radiol 31:581–586CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Abdelwahab IF et al (1998) Sonographic evaluation of tears of the gastrocnemius medial head (“Tennis leg”). J Ultrasound Med 17:157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martinoli C, Derchi LE, Pastorino C et al (1993) Analysis of echotexture of tendons with US. Radiology 186:839–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kalebo P, Allenmark C, Peterson L et al (1992) Diagnostic value of ultrasonography in partial ruptures of the Achilles tendon. Am J Sports Med 20:378–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khan KM, Bonar F, Desmond PM et al (1996) Patellar tendinosis (jumpers knee): findings at histopathologic examination, US and MR imaging. Radiology 200:821–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diaz GC, van Holsbeeck M, Jacobson JA (1998) Longitudinal split of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis tendons with disruption of the superior peroneal retinaculum. J Ultrasound Med 17:525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prato N, Derchi LE, Martinoli C (1996) Sonographic diagnosis of biceps tendon dislocation. Clin Radiol 51:737–739CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Silvestri E, Martinoli C, Derchi LE et al (1995) Echotexture of peripheral nerves: correlation between US and histologic findings and criteria to differentiate tendons. Radiology 197:291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Derchi LE (1999) Tendon and nerve sonography. Radiol Clin North Am 37:691–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bianchi S (2008) Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves. Joint Bone Spine 75(6):643–649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Gandolfo N et al (2000) US of nerve entrapments in osteofibrous tunnels of the upper and lower limbs Radiographics. 20:S199–S213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arslan G, Apaydin A, Kabaalioglu A (1999) Sonographically detected subacromial/subdeltoid bursal effusion and biceps tendon sheath fluid: reliable signs of rotator cuff tear? J Clin Ultrasound 27:335–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wiener S, Seitz W (1993) Sonography of the shoulder in patients with tears of the rotator cuff: accuracy and value for selecting surgical options. AJR Am J Roentgenol 160(1): 103–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Farin PU, Kaukanen E, Jaroma H et al (1996) Site and size of rotator-cuff tear: findings at ultrasound, double-contrast arthrography, and computed tomography arthrography with surgical correlation. Invest Radiol 31(7):387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brenneke SL, Morgan CJ (1992) Evaluation of ultrasonography as a diagnostic technique in the assessment of rotator cuff tendon tears. Am J Sports Med 20(3):287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thain LM, Adler RS (1999) Sonography of the rotator cuff and biceps tendon: technique, normal anatomy, and pathology J Clin Ultrasound 27(8):446–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grainger AJ, Tirman PF, Elliott JM et al (2000) MR anatomy of the subcoracoid bursa and the association of subcoracoid effusion with tears of the anterior rotator cuff and the rotator interval. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174(5): 1377–1380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chiou HJ, Chou YH, Wu JJ et al (1999) Alternative and effective treatment of shoulder ganglion cyst: ultrasonographically guided aspiration. J Ultrasound Med 18(8):531–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Farin P (1995) Sonographic findings of rotator cuff calcifications. J Ultrasound Med 14(1):7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McNally E, Rees J (2007) Imaging in shoulder disorders. Skeletal Radiol 36(11): 1013–1016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miller TT, Shapiro MA, Schultz E, Kalish PE (2002) Comparison of sonography and MRI for diagnosing epicondylitis. J Clin Ultrasound 30(4): 193–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Connell DA, Ali KE, Ahmad M et al (2006) Ultrasound-guided autologous blood injection for tennis elbow. Skeletal Radiol 35(6):371–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    De Smet AA, Winter TC, Best TM, Bernhardt DT (2002) Dynamic sonography with valgus stress to assess elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers. Skeletal Radiol 31(11):671–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weiss C, Mittelmeier M, Gruber G (2000) Do we need MR images for diagnosing tendon ruptures of the distal biceps brachii? The value of ultrasonographic imaging. Ultraschall Med 21(6):284–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bird S (2006) A new method for ultrasound evaluation of the distal biceps brachii tendon. Ultrasound Med Biol 32(5S):294–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacobson JA, Jebson PJL, Jeffers AW et al (2001) Ulnar nerve dislocation and snapping triceps syndrome: diagnosis with dynamic sonography: report of three cases 1. Radiology 220(3):601–605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gessini L, Jandolo B, Pietrangeli A (1983) Entrapment neuropathies of the median nerve at and above the elbow. Surg Neurol 19(2): 112–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Miller JH, Beggs I (2001) Detection of intraarticular bodies of the elbow with saline arthrosonography. Clin Radiol 56(3):231–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Abdelwahab IF (1999) High-frequency ultrasound examination of the wrist and hand. Skeletal Radiol 28:121–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Giovagnorio F, Andreoli C, De Cicco ML (1997) Ultrasonographic evaluation of de Quervain’s disease. J Ultrasound Med 16:685–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Serafini G, Derclii LE, Quadri P et al (1996) High resolution sonography of the flexor tendons in trigger fingers. J Ultrasound Med 15:23–219Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    McNally EG (2008) Ultrasound of the small joints of the hands and feet: current status Skeletal Radiol 37:99–113Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Buchberger W, Judmaier W, Birbamer G et al (1992) Carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis with high-resolution sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159:793–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bianchi S, Delia Santa D, Glauser T et al (2008) Sonography of masses of the wrist and Hand. AJR Am J Roentgenol 191: 1767–1775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bianchi S, Abdewahab IF, Zwass A et al (1993) Sonographic findings in exam ination of digital ganglia: retrospective study. Clin Radiol 48:45–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harcke H, Grissom L (1990) Performing dynamic sonography of the infant hip. AJR Am J Roentgenol 155(4):837–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grissom LE, Harcke HT (1999) Ultrasonography and developmental dysplasia of the infant hip. Curr Opin Pediatr 11(1):66–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Berman L, Fink A, Wilson D, McNally E (1995) Technical note: identifying and aspirating hip effusions. Br J Radiol 68(807):306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bianchi S, Martmoli C, Keller A et al (2002) Giant iliopsoas bursitis: sonographic findings with magnetic resonance correlations. J Clin Ultrasound 30(7):437–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Choi YS, Lee SM, Song BY (2002) Dynamic sonography of external snapping hip syndrome. J Ultrasound Med 21(7):753–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Robinson P, Hensor E, Lansdown MJ et al (2006) Inguinofemoral hernia: accuracy of sonography in patients with indeterminate clinical features. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187(5): 1168–1178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alam A, Nice C, Uberoi R (2005) The accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of clinically occult groin hernias in adults. Eur Radiol 15(12):2457–2461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cook JL, Khan KM, Kiss ZS et al (2001) Asymptomatic hypoechoic regions on patellar tendon ultrasound: a 4-year clin-ical and ultrasound followup of 46 tendons. Scand J Med Sei Sports 11(6):321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Terslev L, Qvistgaard E, Torp Pedersen S et al (2001) Ultrasound and power Doppler findings in jumper’s knee: preliminary observations. Eur J Ultrasound 13(3): 183–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Blankstein A, Cohen I, Heim M et al (2001) Ultrasonography as a diagnostic modality in Osgood-Schlatter disease. A clinical study and review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 121(9):536–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McCarthy CL, McNally EG (2004) The MRI appearance of cystic lesions around the knee. Skeletal Radiol 33(4): 187–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Aulisa L, Tamburrelli F, Padua R et al (1998) Intraneural cyst of the peroneal nerve. Childs Nerv Syst 14(4–5):222–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Maffulli N (1987) Ultrasound diagnosis of Achilles tendon pathology in runners. Br J Sports Med 21(4): 158–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Richards PJ, Dheer AK, McCall IM (2001) Achilles tendon (TA) size and power Doppler ultrasound (PD) changes compared to MRI: a preliminary observational study. Clin Radiol 56(10):843–850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ohberg L, Alfredson H (2002) Ultrasound guided sclerosis of neovessels in painful chronic Achilles tendinosis: pilot study of a new treatment. Br J Sports Med 36(3): 173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Premkumar A, Perry MB, Dwyer AJ et al (2002) Sonography and MR imaging of posterior tibial tendinopathy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 178(1):223–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Miller S, Van Holsbeeck M, Boruta P et al (1996) Ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior tibial tendon pathology. Foot & Ankle Int 17(9):555–558Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mansour R, Teh J, Sharp RJ, Ostlere S (2008) Ultrasound assessment of the spring ligament complex. Eur Radiol 18(11):2670–2675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Neustadter J, Raikin SM, Nazarian LN (2004) Dynamic sonographic evaluation of peroneal tendon subluxation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183(4):985–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Milz P (1996) 13 MHz high-frequency sonography of the lateral ankle joint ligaments and the tibiofibular syndesmosis in anatomic specimens. J Ultrasound Med 15(4):277–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gregg J, Silberstein M, Schneider T, Marks P (2006) Sonographic and MRI evaluation of the plantar plate: a prospective study. Eur Radiol 16(12):2661–2669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene McNally
    • 1
  • Stefano Bianchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThe Manor HospitalOxfordUK
  2. 2.Institut de RadiologieClinique des GrangettesGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations