Urolithiasis is a disease known to mankind since antiquity. In fact lithotomy, i.e. the surgical removal of bladder calculi, is the oldest surgical operation and was practiced by the ancient Egyptians. The prevalence of the condition is still high today, affecting around 10% of the population. Unlike in developing countries, where urinary bladder calculi are the main presentation, in Western countries the upper urinary tract is more commonly involved. Stones located in the bladder are almost always associated with bladder outlet obstruction and only in anecdotal cases with the presence of foreign bodies such as nonabsorbable sutures.
KeywordsUrinary System Disease
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Asplin JR, Favus MJ, Coe FL (1996) Nephrolithiasis. In: Brenner BM (ed) Brenner and Rector’s the kidney, 5th edn. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp 1893–1935Google Scholar
- Epstein JI, Amin MB, Reuter VR et al (1998) The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology consensus classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Bladder Consensus Conference Committee. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1435–1448Google Scholar