Treatment of Varicocele

  • Gian Paolo Cornalba
  • Giuseppe Giordano


Dilatation of the pampiniform plexus, commonly defined varicocele, is a relatively frequent condition in the male population, which is often associated with infertility and dyspermia (30–45%). It is caused by an inversion in flow in the internal spermatic vein which empties on the left into the renal vein and on the right directly into the inferior vena cava. In 85% of cases the varicocele involves the left spermatic vein, for anatomic reasons: venous reflux occurs more commonly through the internal spermatic vein or through the dilated collateral branches which anastomose with the renal vein, and more rarely from tributary venous branches of the lumbar veins, the inferior vena cava or the iliac veins.


Valsalva Maneuver Spermatic Vein Venous Reflux Internal Spermatic Vein Pampiniform Plexus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gian Paolo Cornalba
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Giordano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Milan San Paolo HospitalMilanItaly

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