Dilatation of the pampiniform plexus, commonly defined varicocele, is a relatively frequent condition in the male population, which is often associated with infertility and dyspermia (30–45%). It is caused by an inversion in flow in the internal spermatic vein which empties on the left into the renal vein and on the right directly into the inferior vena cava. In 85% of cases the varicocele involves the left spermatic vein, for anatomic reasons: venous reflux occurs more commonly through the internal spermatic vein or through the dilated collateral branches which anastomose with the renal vein, and more rarely from tributary venous branches of the lumbar veins, the inferior vena cava or the iliac veins.
KeywordsValsalva Maneuver Spermatic Vein Venous Reflux Internal Spermatic Vein Pampiniform Plexus
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Chakraborty J, Hikim AP, Jhunijhunwala JS (1985) Stagnation of blood in the microcirculatory vessels in the testes of men with varicocele. J Androl 6:117–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
Cohen MS, Plaine L, Brown JS (1975) The role of internal spermatic vein plasma catecholamine determination in subfertile men with varicocele. Fertil Steril 26:1243–1249PubMedGoogle Scholar
Laven JS, Haans LC, Mali WP et al (1992) Effects of varicocele treatment in adolescents: a randomized study. Fertil Steril 58:756–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
Liguori G, Trombetta C, Garaffa G et al (2004) Color Doppler ultrasound investigation of varicocele. World J Urol 22:378–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Sarteschi LM, Paoli R, Bianchini M et al (1993) Lo studio del varicocele con eco-color-Doppler. Giornale Italiano di Ultrasonologia 4:43–49Google Scholar
Bach D, Bahren W, Gall H et al (1988) Late results after sclerotherapy of varicocele. Eur Urol 14:115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
Belgrano E, Puppo P, Quattrini S et al (1984) The role of venography and sclerotherapy in the management of varicocele. Eur Urol 10:124–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
Di Bisceglie C, Fornendo R, Grosso M et al (2003) Follow up of varicocele treated with percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy: technical, clinical and seminal aspects. J Endocrinol Invest 26:1059–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
Pisco JM, Basto I, Batista AM et al (1992) Percutaneous sclerotherapy of varicocele. Acta Med Port 5:477–481PubMedGoogle Scholar