Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base

  • Daniel M. Prevedello
  • Amin B. Kassam
  • Paul A. Gardner
  • Ricardo L. Carrau
  • Carl H. Snyderman


Although endoscopic sinus surgery started in the early 1900s with the work of Hirschmann [1] in 1903 and Escat in 1911 [2], it only progressed after a better understanding of sinonasal physiology was provided by Messerklinger [3], and the development of rod lens systems by Hopkins in the 1960s [1].


Internal Carotid Artery Cavernous Sinus Endonasal Approach Nasoseptal Flap Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel M. Prevedello
    • 2
  • Amin B. Kassam
    • 1
  • Paul A. Gardner
    • 2
  • Ricardo L. Carrau
    • 1
  • Carl H. Snyderman
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Neurological Surgery and Dept of OtolaryngologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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