Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr are a particular group of atoms characterized by one electron (often called optical being the one involved in optical spectra) with expectation value of the distance from the nucleus < r > considerably larger than the one of the remaining (N − 1) electrons, forming the internal “core”. The alkali atoms are suited for analyzing the role of the core charge in modifying the Coulomb potential (−Ze2/r) pertaining to Hydrogenic atoms (§1.4), as well as to illustrate the effect of the spin-orbit interaction (§1.6).
KeywordsHelium Atom Nuclear Charge Typical Atom Optical Electron Pauli Principle
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