Advertisement

Tice sindrome di Gilles de la Tourette

  • Giovanna Zorzi
  • Nardo Nardocci

Riassunto

I tic rappresentano uno dei disturbi del movimento più frequentemente incontrati nella patologia neurologica del bambino. Il tic si definisce come un movimento rapido e improvviso (tic motorio) o una emissione di suoni prodotti dal passaggio di aria attraverso il naso, la bocca o la gola (tic vocale) [1].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliografia

  1. 1.
    Jankovic J. Tourette syndrome. Phenomenology and classification of tic. Neurol Clin 1997; 15: 267–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. DSM-IV. 4 edn. American Psychiatric Association Washington (DC), 1994.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apter A, Pauls DL, Bleich A et al. An epidemiological study on Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome in Israel. Arch Gentile Psychiatry 1993; 50:734–738.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mason A, Banerjee S, Eapen V et al (1998) The prevalence of Tourette syndrome in a mainstream school population. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998; 40:292–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruun RD. Budman CL (1997) The course and prognosis of Tourette syndrome. Neurol Clin 1997; 15:291–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robertson MM. Annotation: Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome: an update. J Child 7. Psychol Psychiatry 1994; 35:597–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robertson MM. Eapen V. Pharmacologic controversy of CNS stimulanTS in Gilles de la tourette syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol 1992; 15:408–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    George MS, Trimble MR, Ring HA et al. Obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150:93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dinan TG. Obsessive compulsive disorder: the paradigm shift. J Serotonin Res 1995; 1:19–25Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robertson MM. Tourette syndrome, associated conditions and complexities of treatment. Brain 2000; 123:425–462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shapiro AK, Shapiro E, Wayne H. Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with haloperidol: review of 34 cases. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973; 28:92–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shapiro AK, Shairo E. Clinical efficacy of haloperidol, pimozide, penfluridol and clonidine in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Adv Neurol 1982; 35:383–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singer HS, Gammon K, Quaskey AS. Haloperidol, fluphenazine and clonidine in Tourette syndrome: controversies in treatment. Pediatr Neurosci 1986; 12:71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ross MS, Moldofski H. A comparison of pimozide with haloperidol in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette. Am J Psychiatry 1978; 135:585–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shapiro E, Shapiro AK, Fulop G et al. Controlled study of haloperidol, pimozide and placebo for the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette. Arch gen Psychiatry 1989; 46:722–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sandor P, Musisi S, Moldofski H et al. Tourette syndrome: a follow-up study. J Clin Pharmacol 1990; 10:197–199.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sallee FR, Nesbitt L, Jackson C et al. Relative efficacy of haloperidol and pimozide in children and adolescents with Tourette’s disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154:1057–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robertson MM, Schnieden V, Lees AJ. Management of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome using sulpiride. Clin Neuropharmacol 1990; 13:229–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    George MS, Trimble MR, Robertson MM. Fluvoxamine and sulpiride in comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Hum Psychopharmacol 1993; 8:327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bruun RD, Budman CL. Risperidone as a treatment for Tourette’s syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57:29–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roberston MM, Scull DA, Eapen V et al. Risperidone in the treatment of Tourette syndrome: a retrospective case note study. J Psychopharmacol 1996; 10:317–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chappel PB, Leckman JF, Riddle MA. The pharmacological treatment of tic disorders. Clin Adolesc Psychiatr Clin North Am 1995; 4:197–216.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fulop G, Phillips RA, Shapiro AK et al. ECG changes during haloperidol and pimozide treatment of Tourette’s disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1987 144:673–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen DJ, Detlor J, Young JG et al. Clonidine ameliorates Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980; 37:1350–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goetz CG. Clonidine and clonazepam in Tourette syndrome. Adv Neurol 1992 58:245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leckman JF, Detlor J, Harcherik DF et al. Short and long term treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with clonidine: a clinical perspective. Neurology 1985; 35:343–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leckman JF, Hardin MT, Riddle MA et al. Clonidine treatment of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48:324–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jankovic J, Rohaidy H. Motor, behavioural and pharmacologic findings in Tourette’s syndrome. Can J Neurol 1987; Sci 14:541–546.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jankovic J, Beach J. Long term effecTS of tetrabenazine in hyperkinetic movemenTS disorders. Neurology 1997; 48:358–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jankovic J, Hallet M (eds) Therapy with botulinum toxin. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Scott BL, Jankovic J, Donovan DT. Botulinum toxin injection into vocal cord in the treatment of malignant coprolalia associated with Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord 1996; 11: 431–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Trimble MR, Whurr R, Brookes G et al. Vocal tic in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome treated with botulinum toxin injections. Mov Disord 1998; 13:617–619.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Riddle MA, Hardin MT, King R et al. Fluoxetine treatment of children and adolescenTS with Tourette’s and obsessive-compulsive disorders: preliminary clinical experience. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1990; 29:45–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McDougle CJ, Goodman WK, Leckman JF et al. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1993; 13:354–358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flament MF, Rapoport JL, Berg CJ et al. Clomipramine treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985; 42: 977–983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ackermans L, Temel Y, Visser-Vandevalle V. Deep brain stimulation in Tourette’s Syndrome. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Apr; 5 (2):339–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Piacentini J, Chang S. Behavioural treatment for Tourette syndrome and tic disorder: state of the art. Adv Neurol 2001; 85:319–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Azrin NH, Nunn RG. Habit reversal: a method of eliminating nervous habiTS and tic. Behav Res Ther 1973; 11:619–628.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peterson AL, Campise RL, Azrin NH. Behavioural and pharmacological teratmenTS for tic and habit disorders: a review. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1994; 15:430–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Zorzi
    • 1
  • Nardo Nardocci
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Neuropsichiatria Infantile Unità Operativa di Neuropsichiatria InfantileFondazione Istituto Neurologico “C. Besta”Milano
  2. 2.SO Diagnosi e Terapia dei Disordini del Movimento in Età Pediatrica Dipartimento di Neuropsichiatria InfantileFondazione Istituto Neurologico “C. Besta”Milano

Personalised recommendations